Skip to main content

Full text of "Report on the Seashore Recreation Area Survey of the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts"

See other formats


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/reportonseashoreOOnati 



vj O T 



A 



Seashore Recreation Area Survey 



OF THE A T L 






— n 11 w 

BNlY 










NATIONAL PARK SERVICE • DEPARTMENT 



DATE DUE 



:ZUaJ 


- m 










-7-B BV8 av 


78 IYI 17 








tUAUt 






^*-/^t/Afci 


uxu^ 


















































































































GAYLORD 






PRINTED IN U.S A. 



A REPORT 

on a 
SEASHORE RECREATION AREA SURVEY 



of the 
Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 



National Park Service 
Department of the Interior 

1955 



in 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Inception of the Survey ii 

Acknowledgments Hi 

Plan of Survey and Report 1 

Summary of Findings and Recommendations 7 

The Remaining Opportunities 11 

Maine 17 

New Hampshire 37 

Massachusetts 39 

Rhode Island 6l 

Connecticut 6k 

New York 67 

New Jersey 79 

Delaware 95 

Maryland 103 

Virginia 107 

North Carolina 121 

South Carolina 139 

Georgia 151 

Florida 165 

Alabama. 185 

Mississippi 190 

Louisiana 197 

Texas 205 

Appendix 

The History of the Seacoast A-l 

The Native Life of the Seacoast A-9 

Existing Federal and State Seashore 

Areas A -21 



IHCEPTIOH OF THE SURVEY 



The Rational Park Service was asked early in 195^ 
what were the remaining opportunities to preserve outstanding 
stretches of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts — not only places 
valuable for their scenic qualities and for public recreation, 
but areas desirable as sanctuaries for unique or rare plant 
and animal communities. 

The question made us stop to think. About 20 years 
ago the Service conducted a seashore recreation area survey 
with emergency funds and was able to identify many important, 
unspoiled natural areas which seemed deserving of preservation 
for future public use and enjoyment. But time had passed 
swiftly; a war had intervened, followed by a period of great 
economic growth and development. No one seemed to know how 
far development might have spread up and down the coast as a 
whole, spilling over into or engulfing the quiet natural areas 
we had once known. 

The national Park Service had neither the personnel 
nor the funds to answer these questions. But as the result of 
a generous donation of private funds for the purpose, the 
Service was able to assemble a small professional staff and 
undertake an 18-month study of the coast and off-shore islands 
between the Canadian and Mexican borders* 

This report records briefly the history of the survey 
and attempts to classify the 126 areas which were found — many 
probably too late. 



^ ii 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The National Park Service is especially grateful to 
the anonymous donors, -whose generosity made this Survey possible, 
and to the United States Coast Guard and its efficient and 
cooperative personnel for providing transportation, largely by 
helicopter, over the entire length of the Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts . 

The Service is indebted, too, to the many State park 
and planning officials who furnished consultative services and 
who, in many cases, took part in field investigations; to the 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Nature Conservancy, the Audubon 
Society and to the several universities and many individuals who 
extended their advice and assistance in the Survey. 



iii 



PLAN OF SURVEY AND REPORT 

The task assigned, "to identify the major remaining 
opportunities for conservation of natural seashores or coastal 
areas for recreational or other public purposes", necessitated 
consideration of certain factors which, combined vith the exercise 
of judgment, formed the basis of the selection of the major areas. 

The seashore is a limited and diminishing resource of 
scenic and scientific interest, of first rank importance in the 
natural heritage of the Bat ion. But so much of the seashore has 
been preempted by commercial and private developments that the 
term major, in some cases, is difficult to define. 

If a length of seashore was observed to be undeveloped, 
or at least only sparsely developed in relation to the density of 
improvements within the general vicinity, it automatically became 
eligible for consideration. And if it possessed qualities of vast- 
ness, contrast, picturesqueness, or a combination of those intangible 
elements that are generally recognized as contributing to inspiration, 
understanding, and appreciation it was judged to be worthy of further 
study and consideration as an area of first importance. Or if the 
undeveloped section contained unique biotic communities that were in 
a natural, unmodified condition, or could become wholly natural if 



left undisturbed for a reasonable period of years, it was con- 
sidered worthy of preservation and further study as an area of 
first importance. 

Undeveloped areas that possessed these scenic values or 
biotic communities to a lesser degree, or whose natural qualities 
had been impaired, were considered to be worthy of preservation 
but, perhaps, of less than national concern. 

It is realized that these appraisals were relative and 
for practical reasons had to be based largely on the informed 
judgment of the survey technicians and others consulted such as 
State park directors, university professors, Fi6h and Wildlife 
Service biologist , State historians, and others. 

The suitability of these undeveloped areas was further 
evaluated by Judging whether they were (l) of such character as 
would accommodate the number of visitors that might be anticipated 
if the areas were properly protected, developed, and administered, 
and (2) if they were adaptable for development and operation as 
public recreational areas. 

It was understood that the preliminary reconnaissance 
could do little more than spot the remaining major undeveloped areas 
along the shoreline. The areas that appeared to have the greatest 
potentialities were to be given as much study as time and funds 
permitted. 



The shoreline was determined to be the general shoreline , 
in accordance with the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 
type of measurement for this classification, 1 e., the shore line 

r 

of bays and sounds included to a point where such waters narrow to 
a width of a unit measure (30 nautical miles or 3*+«5 statute miles). 

During the period of plane and ground reconnaissance, a 
report form was used (copy included in appendix) which provided 
opportunity to list certain essential descriptive material neces- 
sary in judging the values of an area. In addition, other informa- 
tion was written on the geodetic sheets, as the areas were seen 
from the air and observed on the ground. 

Insofar as possible, the following kinds of data were 
collected for each area: 

I. Physiographic Features 

A. Scenic values: the degree of inspirational 

qualities of seascape and landscape and the 
likelihood of attracting visitors from 
great distances. 

B. Length and wi th of area and shore the extent 

of undeveloped or only sparsely developed 
land and seashore. 

C. Extent, type and condition of vegetative cover. 

D. Dunes: location, extent, stability, height. 



E. Bays, sounds, and ponds (fresh and salt): extent, 

marine and vegetative life, waterfowl habitat. 

F. Salt marshes: wildlife habitat, biotic communities 

G. Beach (surf, ocean, bay and sound sides) 

1. Extent: length, width 

2. Slope: gentle, steep 

3. Condition: sand, gravel, rock, texture, color, 
debris 

k. Degree of erosion 

H. Foreshore: degree of slope, undertow or riptide 
conditions . 

I. Geologic formations: cliffs and rock formations, 
extent and type. 

J. Water* color, cleanliness, amount of surf, tide, 
pollution . 

II. Adaptability for Use 
A. Present land use 

1. Developed portion 

a. Extent and type 

2. Undeveloped portion 

a. Extent and type, including adequate space 

for parking, services, and structural 
facilities 

b. Degree of deterioration caused by adverse 

influences 

1. Timber cutting 

2 . Grazing 



3- Oil and gas operations 

k. Hunting and trapping 

3. Roads: type, condition, extent, ease of access 
from main highways. 

B. Accessibility: areas reached by car or that can be 

connected by road without excessive costs; cost 
of making isolated areas accessible. 

C. Relationship to population centers: the density of 

population within the area from which a high 
percentage of visitors might be drawn. 

D. Relationship to areas of similar character: existing 

seashore areas that may be serving the same centers 
of population, adequately or inadequately. 

E„ Estimated value of land: extent of improvements, 

accessibility, degree of surrounding real estate 
activity. 

F. Estimated availability of area for public use: 

pattern of ownership, number of holdings, likeli- 
hood of owners placing holdings on market. 

G. Insect and arachnid problem: the extent of activity, 

whether tolerable or unbearable. 

III. Natural History 

A. Scientific values 

1. Biotic communities in a natural, unmodified 
condition, 

2. Biotic communities that can be wholly natural if 
left undisturbed for reasonable period of years. 

3- Biotic communities that harbor rare or uniquie 
species of either plants or animals. 

k. Biotic communities that are important as a breed- 
ing ground for birds or other animals. 



B. Recreation values 

1. Biotic communities that: 

a. Provide esthetic qualities 

b. Produce shade 

c. Are conducive to nature study and 
photography 

IV. Historical and Archeological 

A. The role of the site in history: political, social, 

economic, cultural — and whether significant to 
local, regional or national affairs. 

B. The role of the site in archeology 

1. Its contribution to knowledge of historic and pre- 
historic times. 

2. Prospects of artifacts in the site. 

C. Extent of visible remains, atmosphere of original 

character and association retained. 

D. Adaptability to interpretation. 

E. Sites adjacent which might strengthen its importance. 



SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

Of the 3,TOO miles of general shoreline constituting the 
Atlantic and Gulf coasts, there are 2*40 miles, or 6^ percent, in 
Federal and State ownership for public recreation purposes. 

Within these 2U0 miles there are 39 areas: 2 national 
parks, 1 national seashore recreation area and 36 State seashores. 
There are in addition k national wildlife refuges with ocean 
beaches which are not primarily utilized for public recreation. 

Over 50 percent of the 2*+0 miles is contained in the Cape 
Hatteras National Seashore Recreation Area and in Acadia and Ever- 
glades National Parks. However, neither Acadia nor Everglades 
National Park contains much beach frontage suitable for seashore 
recreation activities. 

The 1955 seashore survey identified and reported upon 
126 undeveloped areas. Of this total 72 were eliminated from 
further consideration because they lacked recreation potentialities 
or were unavailable for public use, 

The remaining 5^ areas were believed to be of interest to 
local, State or Federal agencies as possible public seashores. 
These 5^ areas, which contain about 6^K) miles of beach and comprise 
17 percent of the shoreline of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, con- 
stitute the major remaining opportunities for conservation of sea- 
shore resources . 

Of the 5^ areas most suitable for public seashore recre- 
ation, 6 of the areas and one-third of the total beach mileage are 
in one State - Texas; two of the 5^ areas were considered to be 
superior to all the others. (Twenty-eight areas were judged to be 
of exceptional importance and the respective States are negotiating 
for 8 of these . ) 

There was a striking parallel between this recreation sur- 
vey and the two-year inventory of the wetlands of the United States, 
conducted by the Fish and Wildlife Service. Of the 5^ most desirable 
areas listed by this survey, all but 6 had been rated in the wetlands 
inventory as possessing high or moderate value of birdlife. 

Within the most densely populated section of the seashore , 
between Massachusetts and Delaware, there are l8 undeveloped areas 
containing 118 miles of coastline. The extreme importance of ac- 
quiring additional seashore in this region is vividly emphasized by 



the conclusion of the recent Yale University City Planning Survey: 
that the entire 600-mile area of the eastern seaboard from Portland, 
Maine, to lorfolk, Virginia, can he designated as a single, linear 
city containing one -fifth of the Nation's population. 

In 1935 a survey of undeveloped seashore areas conducted 
hy the National Park Service recommended that 12 major undeveloped 
areas with a total shoreline of ^39 miles toe preserved as national 
seashores. Only one of the 12 areas - Cape Hatteras - was set aside 
for this purpose, and 10 of the 11 areas which were recoraaended for 
preservation in 1935 are now in various stages of private or com- 
mercial development. 

The movement to buy up seashore property for commercial 
and private use has had its great st impetus since 19^5* and an 
economic tooom in seashore property is a phenomenon of the entire 
coast Extensive and costly developments now line mile after mile 
of seashore which toe fore World War II was uninhabited. 

One of the areas recommended as a national seashore in 
1935 was 30 miles long and could have been purchased for $260,000. 
Less than 9 miles remain undeveloped today, and the cost of pur- 
chasing the land now would be more then $1,000,000 - an increase 
in value of 1200 percent in 20 years. 

A second area selected in 1935 was - and is - accessible 
only by boat. Despite this handicap, the island has been subdivided 
and a majority of the 5,000 lots sold - with no access in sight. 
The price has skyrocketed from $26 an acre to $65 a front foot. 

Every factor exerting influence on the pattern of use of 
the seashore will tend to make conditions far worse in coming years. 
Outdoor recreation is fast becoming a major industry. More and more 
persons and interests will be competing for less and less available 
beach. 

The Census Bureau estimates that in 20 years - by 1975 - 
the population of the United States will jump to over 200,000,000. 
The fact that the population will nearly double in 50 years does not 
mean the number of visitors to the beach will merely double. 

From 1934 to I95U the number of visitors to the national 
parks increased from 6,000,000 to U8, 000, 000. In kO years, the 
ratio of visitors to the national parks to total population has 
increased from 1 in 300 to 1 in 3. Within the 20-year period, 193^- 
195*S visitation to Hew York State Park beaches has increased from 
5,000,000 persons to 61,000,000. 



8 



Considering these facta, it is recommended : 

That at least 15 percent of the general shoreline of the 
Atlantic and Golf coasts be acquired for public recreation purposes. 
If public agencies acquire half of the suitable undeveloped seashore 
land remaining, they would then have, including their existing areas, 
the recommended 15 percent. 

That highest priority be given to the acquisition of the 
following 16 areas: 

Great Beach, Cape Cod, Massachusetts 

Cumberland Island, Georgia 

Fire Island, New York 

Shinnecock Inlet, Hew York 

Padre Island, Texas 

Smith Island, North Carolina 

Bogue Banks, North Carolina 

St. Joseph Spit, Florida 

Mosquito Lagoon, Florida 

Parramore Island, Virginia 

Kiawah Island, South Carolina 

Marco Beach, Florida 

Debidue Island, South Carolina 

Popham-St. John, Maine 

Crescent Area, Maine 

Brazos Island, Texas 

That prompt action be taken to acquire available beach 
sites before the best of the remaining areas are acquired for private 
or commercial development. The attention of all persons and organi- 
zations in a position to give aid should be solicited. 

That the acquisition of areas be related as directly as 
possible to the distribution of tributary population, excepting 
those areas that are of such outstanding quality that the need for 
their preservation Justifies acquisition regardless of location. 

That ample quantities of hinterlands of marsh and swamp, 
which provide a valuable habitat for a large and interesting variety 
of bird and animal life, be acquired in connection with acquisition 
of beach property. 

That biotic communities of great scientific interest found 
along the seashore be acquired and preserved regardless of the de- 
sirability of the adjoining beach, and that consideration be given to 
biotic communities at present in a modified condition but which might 
return to a more natural condition if permitted to remain undisturbed. 



That more detailed studies be made of selected coastal areas 
of unusual importance, giving consideration to proper boundaries and 
long range planning for best utilization of recreation values. 



10 



THE REMAINING OPPORTUNITIES 



The survey group inspected and reported upon 126 un- 
developed areas in the lS States along the Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts. A brief description and evaluation of each is contained 
in the following pages. The 5*+ most outstanding areas are grouped 
below and listed from north to south, and the 16 areas judged to be 
of highest priority for acquisition and conservation by a public 
agency are underscored. 

Maine: 

Roque Island 

Castine 

Popham-St. John 

Pemaquid 

Prouts Neck-Scarboro 

Crescent 

Crescent Surf 

Massachusetts : 

Plum Island 

Duxbury Beach 

Great Beach (Outer arm, Cape Cod) 

Saiidy Neck 

Monomoy Island 

Nantucket Island 

Marthas Vineyard 

Washburn Island 

Haushon Island 

Horseneck 

Rhode Island: 

Charlestown Beach 

New York: 

Gardiners Island 
Shlnnecock Inlet 
Fire Island 

New Jersey: 

Little Egg Harbor 
Seven Mile Beach 

Delaware: 

Rehoboth Beach North 
11 



Maryland: 

Assateague Island 

Virginia: 

Assateague Island 
Parramore Island 
Hog Island 

North Carolina: 

Core Banks 
Shackleford Banks 
Bogue Banks 
Ons low Beach 
Federal Point 
Smith Island 

South Carolina: 

Waiter Island 
Debidue Island 
Kiavah Island 

Georgia: 

Ossabav Island 
St. Catherines Island 
Sapelo Island 
Cumberland Island 



Florida: 

Melbourne Beach -Vero Beach 

Mosquito Lagoon 

Keys (Big Pine, Summer land, Cud Joe, Ramrod, 

No -Name, Big Torch, Middle Torch) 
Marco Beach 
St. Joseph Spit 

Mississippi: 

Horn Island 
Ship Island 

Louisiana: 

Gran* Terr e Island 



12 



Texas : 



East Coast 
Galveston Island 
Stephen Austin Island 
Matagorda Peninsula 
Padre Island 
Brazos Island 



13 



DESCRIPTIONS 

The following pages contain brief descrip- 
tions, some with photographs , of the 126 areas 
investigated. The areas are arranged by States, 
according to their geographic locations — from 
the Canadian to the Mexican border. Following 
the map of each State, the areas considered to 
be of unusual interest are described at the 
beginning of the section, followed by less 
detailed descriptions of other areas studied. 

Special detailed studies were made in con- 
nection with the 16 most important areas. 



15 




(T) Cutler - South Trescott 
|) Sprogue Neck 

(3) Roque Island 

(4) Sullivan - East Sullivan 

(5) Castine 

(6) Medomac -Luminous Moss Cove_ 

(7) Pemaquid 

(8) Popham -St. John 
(?) Fort Level t Military Res. 

(jB) Crescent 

(\f) Prout's Neck- Scarboro 

(j|) Crescent Surf 

M3) Ogunqult Beach 



Dover 
-•Portamouth 



-£/-* at Bay (N.H.) 



SCALE OF MILES 

I 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SEASHORE RECREATION AREA SURVEY 

WASHINGTON OFFICE 

VICINITY MAP SHOWING 
UNDEVELOPED SEASHORE AREAS 

DWG. NO. MAINE and NEW HAMPSHIRE MAR. 1*35 



17 




Roque Island 




18 



Rogue Island Group 



Maine 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



Off mainland about 10 miles south -southwest 
of Machias, Maine. 

By boat only. 

One of the most picturesque groups of 
islands along the Maine Coast, Roque, Great 
Spruce, Little Spruce, and six smaller 
islands, together contain about 12 miles 
of shoreline and 1,500 acres of land. 
Roque Island has two good beaches, each 
over a mile in length, fairly vide, white 
in color, gently sloping; the coastline is 
rugged. The group contains an extensive 
cover of spruce-fir forest with some white 
pine, white birch, sugar maple and beech, 
many ferns, mosses and lichens. There has 
been extensive cutting but some of the forest 
is still in virgin condition and very impor- 
tant biologically. The area is relatively 
undeveloped . 

Owned by Roque Island — S. P. Gardner Corpo- 
ration, members being heirs of the Gardner 
family. Used as summer residence with some 
farming, sheep grazing, and selective timber 
cutting . 

An area of unusual park-like qualities, in- 
cluding scenic attraction, natural history 
interest, and potentialities for organization 
camps featuring nature studies. Difficulty 
of access, limited seasonal use, and good 
conservation practices of present owners in- 
dicate that further consideration of this 
desirable area may be deferred until circum- 
stances warrant action. 



19 




/»? >, liT»HV 



W^ 




: i 



1. ■ f! 







Fort George, Castine 



FORT PEN 




i ■'■' 

t + * 



W§& K 



L-- ... 



Fort Pentagoet, Castine 



20 



Castine 



Maine 



Location : 



Accessibility: 



Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



On Penobscot Bay, ^0 miles south of Bangor, 
Maine. 

State Highvay 166, 17 miles from Junction 
with U. S. Highway 1. 

Castine is a lovely old New England Tillage 
of beautiful homes — many of which date to 
l800 or before — overlooking the bay. It 
was the stronghold of French influence in 
Maine and for two centuries a center of 
intrigue and international rivalry involving 
England, France, Holland, the United States 
and the Indian tribes. Castine was occupied 
by the British during the Revolution and the 
War of 1812. Earthwork remains of forts 
and battery positions, including the well- 
preserved Fort George, built by the British 
in 1779> are scattered through the town. 

The town is a summer colony wixh several 
small hotels and restaurants and a golf 
course. Fort George Memorial is a Maine 
State park. More than 100 markers scattered 
throughout the town describe incidents of 
Castine' 8 history. Wilson Museum contains 
excellent historical and archeological 
collections . 



Analysis : 



The historical features of the town are 
worthy of more extensive interpretive 
development, which might be sponsored by 
the Fort George Memorial. Of outstanding 
historical importance, the town should be 
considered for possible designation under 
the Historic Sites Act of 1935. 



21 



■a-**" 





St. John Beach 




Fort Popham 
22 



Popham-St. John 



Maine 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area 



Present Use 



Analysis: 



Between Cape Small and the Kennebec River, 
17 miles south of Bath. 

By paved road. 

The area has wide stretches of beach inter- 
spersed with rocky crags rising to hills 
covered with hemlock and spruce. Popham 
Beach is about 2 miles in length, St. John 
Beach, 1 l/k miles ; the two are separated 
by a narrow tidal stream, the Morse River. 
Both are unusually attractive northern New 
England Beaches, broad and clean. The tiny 
Fox Islands are just off Morse Point; the 
largest of these is joined to the beach at 
low tide. The area is historically impor- 
tant as the site of the first English colony 
in New England. 

The community of Popham owns the western 
one -third of the 2 -mile long beach included 
in the Popham area; the town of Phippsburg 
owns a central section of the Popham area; 
the remainder involves nearly 200 separate 
ownerships. Nearly all of the St. John area 
is owned by Mr. George St. John. The Popham 
area is used as a summer colony; the St. John 
area is a private holding. 

Acquisition of this area is recommended be- 
cause of the scarcity of public use beaches 
in this region. The Popham Colony site, of 
outstanding historical importance, is presently 
undeveloped but could be administered and in- 
terpreted by the Fort Popham Memorial. The 
site should be considered for possible desig- 
nation under the Historic Sites Act of 1935. 



23 



v -I .""!S.€ 




Fort William Henry (restored) 





II ¥ 



*-T , 



*g -wc"*^. 



Pemaquid Beach 



2U 



Pemaquid 



Maine 



Location: 



Accessibility: 



East side of Pemaquid Heck, 12 miles south 
of Damariscotta, Maine. 

By paved spur road from State Highway 130 
at New Harbor. 



Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Located in a typical setting of the rugged 
Maine coast, Pemaquid is a small fishing 
and resort town, whose wharf and small, 
rocky beach border on Johns Bay. Histori- 
cally, it is one of the most significant sites 
in Maine, and played an important role in the 
early history of New England. One of the 
oldest settlements in New England, Pemaquid 
was the most vital English outpost against 
French colonial expansion from the north in 
the century-long struggle between France and 
England for possession of eastern Maine. 
Over a span of 150 years four forts were built 
and destroyed at Pemaquid. 

The town attracts a considerable number of 
summer tourists. Fort William Henry Memorial, 
a State park, is a partial reconstruction of 
the stone fort captured by the French in 1696. 



Analysis : 



This outstanding historical site is being 
given good interpretive treatment by the State; 
however, archeological investigation would be 
a valuable addition to the program. Pemaquid 
should be considered for possible designation 
under the Historic Sites Act of 1935 • 



25 



Prouts Neck-Scarboro 



Maine 



Location : 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



A coastal promontory 8 miles south of Port- 
land; west of Old Orchard Beach. 

By car, State Highway 207. 

An hourglass -shaped area with the east and 
west sides of the triangular portion of the 
shape forming Scarboro and Prouts Neck 
Beaches respectively. Scarboro Beach is 
about 1 l/k miles long, fairly wide, gently 
sloped, reasonably free of shells and debris. 
Behind low, stable dunes is a large fresh- 
water pond and a small expanse of marsh. The 
upland meadows and forests are fast disappear- 
ing because of the development taking place on 
all sides. Prouts Neck Beach, similar in char- 
acter to Scarboro Beach, but wider, flatter, 
and cleaner, is about 1 l/2 miles long. The 
beach is interrupted midway by a river outlet. 
The ground between the river and the beach is 
low and marshy. 

Scarboro Beach is used by tenants of certain 
resort properties. The portion of Prouts 
Neck Beach east of the river's mouth is bor- 
dered by a golf course and clubhouse. The 
portion of the beach west of the river's 
mouth is now undeveloped but lies in the 
path of Old Orchard Beach and Pine Point 
expansion programs. 

Prouts Neck-Scarboro area does not have un- 
usual or spectacular character but it does 
have nearly 3 miles of undeveloped seashore, 
readily adaptable for recreational use, in 
the midst of extensive shore developments 
and adjacent to centers of population. It 
is believed, however, that this area will 
be developed for private purposes through 
the expansion of the communities around it. 



27 




Crescent Area, Richmond Beach in Foreground 



28 



Crescent 



Maine 



Location: 
Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use 



Analysis : 



7 miles south of Portland. 

By road. 

Lying Just off the principal traffic routes 
along coastal Maine, vithin a few miles of 
Portland, the largest population center on 
the Maine coast, the Crescent area possesses 
fine stretches of sandy beach and interesting 
natural resources and is easily accessible 
by road. The beach on the mainland is about 
3 miles long and on Richmond Island about 1 
mile in length. The mainland area contains 
about 2,140 acres, and Richmond Island about 
220 acres. The vegetative cover is sparse 
and unimportant. A great variety of marine 
plants and animals to be found on or near 
the beach and the breakwater make up a biotic 
community well vorthy of study. 

Kearly 70 percent of the mainland portion of 
the area and all of Richmond Island are 
owned by the Sprague Corporation. The re- 
mainder involves several ownerships. The 
area is used for summer residence, farming, 
and commercial Installations. 

It is one of the very few undeveloped good 
beach areas remaining in Maine, and is 

easily accessible from the largest concen- 
tration of population in the State. 



29 







—* • ' - — - - '" 



Drake's Island 



t* H»K ** *m»: < 




Crescent Surf, Drake's Island in Background 



30 



Crescent Surf 



Maine 



Location : 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area 



Present Use 



Analysis: 



On the mainland, about k miles south of 
Kennebunk and 2 miles east of Elms. 

By car, off State Highway 9. 

The western half of Crescent Surf and the 
eastern half of Drake's Island, two long, 
green -covered, fingerlike ridges dipping 
down into the sea, cover about 3 miles of 
undeveloped beach. The beaches are from 
200 to 300 feet wide, clean, and gently 
sloping. The sand is medium fine, hard- 
packed and clean. Sand dunes are low, flat- 
topped, regular, stable and grass -covered. 
Plant cover in a natural condition is found 
in a forest of white pine, birch and maple, 
with many ferns, mosses and lichens, back 
of the beach in the western part of the 
area. 

Crescent Surf section is owned by members 
of the Parsons family and used as a private 
summer residence. Drake's Island section 
is undeveloped but its western portion 
supports a summer colony, a trend that is 
rapidly spreading eastward on the island. 

The area merits serious consideration above 
others because of the excellent quality of 
its beaches, vegetative cover, dunes, marshes 
and ridges, its adequate size to support 
recreational development and use, and its 
proximity to centers of population and 
principal tourist routes. 



31 




Cutler - South Trescott 



•— r~i 




Sprague Neck 
32 



Maine 



Cutler -South Trescott 

The coastal area between the two villages, approximately 10 
miles long, and 1 l/2 miles wide, between Grand Manan Channel and 
U. S. Highway 1, contains about 9,000 acres of land. The shoreline 
is rocky and rugged with the uplands reaching a height of 200 feet 
thickly covered with evergreens. The rugged character of the land 
limits its possible development and usability for recreational 
purposes . 



Sprague Neck 



A T-shaped area extending westward into Machias Bay, Ik miles 
southeast of Machias. The shores of the area are narrow (30 feet), 
steep, and stony gravel in texture. The foreshore water is deep and 
muddy. The water is too cold and unattractive for bathing. Other 
areas in the immediate vicinity are superior to it for recreational 
use. 



Sullivan -East Sullivan 



A 5 -mile stretch of coast between these two communities, along 
the northeast side of Frenchman Bay, which at low tide presents a 
wide mudflat. It has no sand beaches and very little vegetative 
cover. The area is very inferior to other public areas in this 
vicinity. 



33 




Fort Levett 




HH 



Ogunquit Beach 
3* 



Maine 



Medomac -Luminous Moss Cave 



Two small areas, 8 miles east of Damariscotta and 10 miles 
south of Waldoboro, on both sides of the Medomac River. Hog 
Island, the area on the west side of Medomac River, is of interest 
because of its birdlife, and the area on the east side of the 
river has, in a cave, an unusual species of luminous moss. The 
Audubon Society has some acreage on Hog Island and is Interested 
in acquiring both points of interests in these areas. 



Fort Levett Military Reservation 



The Reservation occupies about one -fourth of an island in 
Casco Bay, approximately 1 mile offshore and directly east of South 
Portland. The shoreline is rocky and rugged and there is little 
vegetation on the island. The Reservation is not of historical 
importance and has little recreation value. 



Ogunquit Beach 



A municipal beach, 1 l/2 miles long and f-*om 600 to 800 feet 
vide, which lies east of the town of Ogunquit and is owned and 
operated by that political agency. The beach is one of the finest 
in the region with its broad, clean, gently sloping area for bathing, 
The sand dunes are moderately high, generally regular, and flat- 
topped. The area is already in public ownership and is a very de- 
sirable asset. 



35 



New Hampshire 



Great Bay 



A 10 -mile long tidal basin in the western outskirts of Portsmouth 
some 7 miles inland, this is the largest remaining undeveloped section 
in New Hampshire that borders salt water. A severe pollution problem 
results from domestic sewage and industrial wastes contained by the 
eight streams flowing into the bay. There is a great deal of forest 
in the area, mostly white pine and sugar maple, but it is nowhere con- 
tinuous for any great distance, being interspersed with farm land and 
pasture land. The forested area has been cut over many times. The bay 
would be suitable for many recreation activities such as bathing and 
picnicking, camping, nature study, and riding, if it were free of 
pollution, a situation not foreseeable in the immediate future. 



37 



MASSACHUSETTS 



Amesbur^ 
/^Salisbury" 1 

;' / l'c> 

-//N«wburyport 

in-: 
I 



K 



Plum Island 



/ 



-w- 



Lynn 



Bostor 



O 



iQuincy. 

|28l 
\* \rf Rockland 

Brockton 



Gr 



Provincetowr 



Duxbury 
Beach 



M 



Plymouth} 

u5j 



ft 



^Bridgewoter 

\a 

LTauntony o 



Eostham 1 



Orleoi 



) 



Chotht 



8 



\v Sand y 

SondwicrlV- Neck. 
WorehamlTV f^\ \ 7 a, 

T30I Hyannis- 

River I(Be,dford 

)l Dartmouth^ 

Noushon 

J^ Island' 
Horseneck r jy H 9 y/ J , y v ^}\^ f\ Nantucket 

Beach *^ E V go ^^| /s/<7/7</ 

PNantucket. 
Viney° ra 



\)(\, FalmoutM/j^ 

woods Hole l/? * Washburn Is/and 

id) 



-^rVineyardr^TCVOak Bluffs 

W Have ■ 



SCALE OF MILES 

j r 

8 



16 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SEASHORE RECREATION AREA SURVEY 

WASHINGTON OFFICE 

VICINITY MAP SHOWING 

UNDEVELOPED SEASHORE AREAS 

DWG NO MASSACHUSETTS FEB 1955 



39 




Plum Island 



UO 



Plum Island 



Massachusetts 



Location : 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



An island running nearly parallel to the 
mainland, about 5 miles east of Nevburyport. 

By car, off U. S. Highway 1. 

Plum Island is one of three outstanding areas 
along the Massachusetts coast, easily ac- 
cessible by ca-r and extensive enough to in- 
clude natural, scenic and biological features 
that can be preserved for public use without 
severe modification. There are six miles of 
gently sloping beach, and clean, white sand; 
dunes are up to 50 feet in height and gener- 
ally stable. Some of the best beach vege- 
tation is to be found along the coast, such 
as beach grass, beach heath, beach plum and 
bayberry; there are small trees of red maple, 
pitch pine, and wild cherry. It is an ex- 
cellent habitat for migratory waterfowl. 

Under the jurisdiction of the Fish and Wild- 
life Service as a migratory bird refuge. 

The quality of its beaches, picturesque 
dunes, unusual beach vegetation, and its 
ease of access make it very desirable for 
public recreation use. A compatible use 
arrangement with the Fish and Wildlife 
Service would be most advantageous. 



Ul 




Duxbury Beach 





k2 



Duxbury Beach 



Massachusetts 



Location : 



Accessibility: 



Description of Area 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



A slender peninsula lying about 2 miles 
directly east of Duxbury. 

By hard -surfaced road from Green Harbor, 
and by bridge from Powder Point. 

Duxbury Beach is a 5 l/2 mile long barrier 
beach of sufficient size to accommodate 
adequately an active recreation program 
without destroying its natural features. 
Its biological and beach values are not as 
superior as those of Plum Island. The 
beaches are wide and gently sloping but 
contain extensive gravel deposits. The 
dunes are low and irregular, subject to 
blowouts from storm tides. The tree and 
shrub communities which appear only in the 
middle and southern portions of the area 
are sparse and not well developed. 

The northern portion is used as a public 
beach by the Town of Duxbury. In the 
southern portions, Gurnet Point and Saquish 
Read are being developed as summer colonies. 

The area's size, ease of access, proximity 
to large centers of population, and unde- 
veloped status make it of prime importance 
in the plan for preserving certain seashore 
areas for public recreation use. The State 
has included Duxbury in its long-range plan 
of acquisition of seashore recreation areas. 



^3 







<5& 




Great Beach 



Uh 



Great Beach 



Massachusetts 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



The eastern shore of the outer arm of 
Cape Cod. 

By road, train, boat, airline. 

Great Beach has the longest unbroken and 
undeveloped sweep of beach in New England, 
combined with a picturesque and fascinating 
hinterland. It is one of the two most out- 
standing areas reviewed on the Atlantic and 
Gulf coasts and is believed to be of national 
significance. The section under consideration 
should include a maximum of 33 l/2 miles of 
seashore, in addition to the Province Lands, 
and a minimum of 13 miles, with an average 
width of three-quarters of a mile. The beach 
is excellent in places, quite variable, and 
backed by cliffs 150 feet high in some sections. 
The dunes are spectacular, some more than 50 
feet high; the vegetative cover is seminatural 
but varied. The geology of the area is in- 
teresting and the history outstanding. 

There are numerous private ownerships, and 
it is a very important summer resort area. 

The area is outstanding and deserves every 
consideration as a public seashore recreation 
area. Careful study should be given, however, 
to the possible boundaries of this area in 
order to determine if acquisition of its 
natural features without excessive cost is 
possible . 



U5 





Sandy Neck 




"Sunken Forest", Sandy Heck 



k6 



Sandy Neck 



Massachusetts 



Location : 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use 



Analysis : 



A peninsula along Cape Cod Bay, 10 miles 
southeast of the Cape Cod Canal and di- 
rectly north of Barnstable. 

By car, paved road off State Highway 6A. 

Sandy Neck is a superior undeveloped area, 
second only to the outer arm, of those areas 
accessible by car along the Massachusetts 
coast. There are 7 miles of wide beach, 
gently sloping, sometimes gravelly in tex- 
ture but generally clean, white and fine. 
The vegetation is among the most varied 
and interesting to be found along the coast, 
with "sunken forests" of pitch pine. There 
are areas of shrub and heath types of vege- 
tation with such plants as blueberry, bay- 
berry, beach plum, beach heath, barberry and 
cranberry. There is an extensive salt marsh 
and the dunes are high, stable and spectacular, 

The western end of Sandy Neck is used by the 
Town of Barnstable as a recreation area. An 
occasional cottage or shack is spotted along 
the shore at the easterly end of the penin- 
sula, where there is a summer colony of about 
20 cottages. 

This is one of the best undeveloped recreation 
areas seen along the Atlantic Coast; it is 
near large centers of population, and is acces- 
sible by car. The area is desired by the 
State and is included in its long-range plan 
of acquisition of seashore recreation areas. 



U 7 



BSg^ 






.^ggl "!"*.,. 



Monomoy Island 



*M 



48 



Monomoy Island 



Massachusetts 



Location : 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



An island running directly south into 
Nantucket Sound from Chatham, at the 
"elbow" of Cape Cod. 

By boat or plane. 

Monomoy Island is a 10-mile stretch of sandy 
beach without the spectacular dunes or un- 
usual vegetation of Plum Island and Sandy 
Neck, but extensive enough to support recre- 
ation activities without destroying its 
natural features. The beach and foreshore 
are gently sloping* with white, clean sand. 
Dunes, some as high as 15 feet, exist in 
the northern and southern portions of the 
island. There is an oak -pine forested area 
in the northern portion while the remainder 
of the island is almost barren of vegetation. 
The biological importance of the island is 
primarily that of a migratory bird refuge. 

The island is under the jurisdiction of the 
Fish and Wildlife Service. 



Analysis : 



This is an excellent beach adjacent to a 
popular resort area. The State is ne- 
gotiating with the Fish and Wildlife Service 
for its acquisition for public recreation. 



h 9 




Long Pond Beach, Nantucket Island 




Great Point, Nantucket Island 



50 



Nantucket Island 



Massachusetts 



Location : 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use 



Analysis: 



An island about 30 miles south of Cape Cod, 
and 12 miles east of Martha s Vineyard. 

By boat and plane. 

Nantucket Island is one of the most interest- 
ing and unusual islands inspected on the sur- 
vey. Cobblestone streets, old shops, homes, 
and museums in quaint villages, bring to mind 
a sense of the past when the town of Nantucket 
was a great whaling port. The island is about 
1^ miles long with an average width of 3 l/2 
miles. It is smoothly rolling with practically 
no forest but extensive shrub cover. Good 
sandy beaches extend around the island, the 
south shore being rather steep while the north 
shore is gentle. The beaches range in color 
from yellow to blinding white. 

It is understood that the county of Nantucket 
owns the beaches around the island to high 
water line, by a recent act of the State legis- 
lature. Land above high water line is owned 
by private individuals. The island is prin- 
cipally a summer vacation center. 

The antipathy of the residents of the island 
toward public ownership of lands and the 
recent legislation that makes the beaches 
available to the public, preclude the possi- 
bility of recommending sites for public recre- 
ation areas. 



51 



.,,*** v 



-**: 



^e» 



t * 









• *±£jmmr 









■ ■ 



W*' «>f* 



^i^ 




Gay Head Cliffs, Marthas Vineyard 



52 



Marthas Vineyard 



Massachusetts 



Location : 



Off mainland 5 miles south of Cape Cod 
and 12 miles west of Nantucket Island. 



Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



By boat only. 

Marthas Vineyard is a land of serene old 
houses, summer cottages, small farms, 
interesting villages and picturesque boat 
harbors. The island is about 20 miles long 
and 10 miles wide with lands that are hilly 
and broken by rocky outcroppings and tree- 
filled ravines. Spectacular multicolored 
cliffs appear at the southwestern end of the 
island. The beaches are generally sandy along 
the south shore but the foreshores are rather 
steep. There are no extensive stretches of 
land along the seashore that do not contain 
improvements of some sort. The system of well- 
constructed roads around the island receives 
considerable use. 

The island is principally a summer vacation 
center. It receives much heavier use than 
Nantucket Island, as it is closer to the main- 
land. 

There are at present three public beaches — 
one State and two town— located on the island. 
In addition, it is believed, recent legislation 
provides that the beaches are the responsi- 
bility of Dukes County, and the public has 
right of access to them. 



53 



Washburn Island 



Massachusetts 



Location : 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



Situated in Town of Falmouth at mouth of 
Waquoit Bay and adjacent to South Cape 
Beach. 

By car, off State Highway 28. 

The primary significance of this area is 
the public beach recreation opportunities 
it offers in a heavily populated, highly 
developed resort area. There is nearly a 
mile of beach on the ocean side and about 
one -half mile on the bay. The beaches are 
fairly wide, some gravel, gently sloping, 
and comparatively clean. There are no dunes or 
shrub or tree communities of significance in 
the area. • 

It is held in private ownership and is not 
now being used. 

The beach area is highly desirable for 
public recreation. Its undeveloped status 
in this section of Cape Cod is quite unusual. 
The State is now negotiating for its use as 
a public recreation area. 



55 



r* 








Naushon Island 




56 



Naushon Island 



Massachusetts 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Largest of the Elizabeth Islands, lying 
between Buzzard's Bay and Vineyard Sound. 

By boat only. 

The largest in this chain of islands, Naushon 
Island is about 6 miles long and possesses 
a rugged shoreline, dotted vlth occasional 
gravel beaches. Rolling topography and good 
cover add to the charm of the area. There 
remain on the island remnants of the type of 
oak -beech forest that once covered most of 
the Cape Cod area. Exotic plants have been 
introduced in great numbers. Private resi- 
dences and outbuildings of the owners are 
located on the north end of the island. 

It is used as a private summer residence of 
the heirs of the Forbes estate and their 
guests. Large numbers of sheep are grazed 
on the island. 



Analysis: 



The island does not possess good beaches 
but should be preserved because it contains 
the only proved climax oak -beech forest 
surviving in New England. Authorities 
contend that the forest at the northern end 
of the island has never been cut in historic 
times and that the southern end has not been 
cut since 1820. 



57 



,, «OTi«p» !*%.' i^^M^pNwwi 



J**r* 



Horsencck Beach 



58 



Horseneck 



Massachusetts 



Location: Near Massachusetts -Rhode Island line, 

southeast of Westport Point. 

Accessibility: By car, off State Highvay 6. 

Description of Area: Horseneck is considered by the Division of 

Public Beaches to be the best undeveloped 
beach remaining in the State. The beach 
extends for about 3 miles, a portion of which 
was veil -developed prior to Hurrican Hazel in 
195*1 • The hurricane cleared many sections 
of beach developments. There are no dunes or 
biological life of significance in the area. 
The beach is wide, gently sloping, with some 
gravel and rocks. 

Present Use: Prior to the hurricane, it was used as a 

private bathing beach for property owners 
and their guests. 

Analysis: The Governor of Massachusetts has requested 

an appropriation from the Legislature (1955) 
to acquire and develop the 3 miles of beach. 
It will meet a definite need for public beach 
recreation in this section of the State. 



59 



MASSACH USETTS . 

I BSD NJS^ v i* JN. Attleboro 

i £?\ f 



5?i /central Falls 







^ or 



S. Attleboro 

ii / ^7 Taunton] 

JiPawtucket 



M \A 
E. Providence 




I } k Warren?" 
.Warwick} 




Bristol , 




Wyoming 
(«j ; Hopevolley 



Kingstor 






lewportt 

Sokonnet 



\ y^£-*^Quonochontaug ^Zp 



[Narragansett 



Green Hill » Po,nt Judith 



O 
O 

o 



Barn Island (Conn J <^ <$v 



Bluff Point (Conn.) 
about 10 Mi. west 




Block 
(Island 



SCALE OF MILES 



10 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SEASHORE RECREATION AREA SURVEY 

WASHINGTON OFFICE 

VICINITY MAP SHOWING 

UNDEVELOPED SEASHORE AREAS 

DWG. NO RHODE ISLAND and CONNECTICUTT MAR . ,955 



61 



i I 



A * 



& 



Char lest own Beach 




62 



Charlestovn Beach 



Rhode Island 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis: 



A barrier reef, between Quonochontaug 
and Green Hill, Rhode Island. 

By car, off U. S. Highway 1. 

A 5-iaile barrier reef, Charlestovn Beach 
has an average width of ^00 yards and is 
almost barren of vegetation. The salt 
ponds between the beach and the mainland 
are biologically interesting because of 
the large numbers of aquatic plants and 
animals. The beach is mostly wide, gently 
sloping, and contains considerable gravel. 
The foreshore varies in slope, and there is 
evidence of undertow activity. Danes appear 
intermittently and, at times, reach 20 feet 
in height. 

Prior to the hurricanes of 1938 and 195*+, 
it was developed and used by its many 
owners as a summer resort area. 

The Governor of Rhode Island has requested 
an appropriation from the legislature (1955) 
for the purchase of 2 miles of beach front 
(at Misquamicut and East Matunuck), outside 
the boundaries outlined above. These areas 
were badly hit by the 195*+ hurricanes. The 
State will, no doubt, enter into negotiations 
for the Charlestovn area sometime in the 
future, and thus tie together in one unit the 
desired beach frontage. 



63 




Barn Island 



■ Pi l l l l 



Bluff Point 



6k 



Connecticut 



Barn Island 



A peninsula, about 2 miles long and over 1 mile vide, 
containing approximately 1,600 acres of low marshy land and wooded 
upland, which lies on the coast of Connecticut near the Rhode Island- 
Connecticut line, south of Pawcatuck, Connecticut. Its shores are 
stony and the water is polluted. The area is under the administration 
of the State Game Commission. If industrial waste can be eliminated 
from the Pawcatuck River, a portion of the shoreline could be adapted 
for public recreation use. 



Bluff Point (Mumford Point ) 

A peninsula, approximately 1 l/2 miles long, l/2 mile wide, 
on the coast of Connecticut, 3 miles southeast of Groton, containing 
about 550 acres of partially wooded land and beach. It contains a 
fine cattail swamp and a small forest with oaks, hickory, beech, 
hornbeam, and hawthorn being the most prominent trees. The beach is 
pebbly and backed up by low, eroding rock outcroppings, and sand 
and boulder cliffs. It is privately owned, has little development 
and is easily accessible from large centers of population. The 
State has had this area under consideration for acquisition for some 
time. 



65 



& Fishers 




Long 
Beach 



SCALE OF MILES 

1 I 




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SEASHORE RECREATION AREA SURVEY 

WASHINGTON OFFICE 

VICINITY MAP SHOWING 

UNDEVELOPED SEASHORE AREAS 

dwq. no. LONG ISLAND, NEW YORK MAR. 1955 



67 









Gardiners Island 



68 



Gar diners Island 



New York 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



Off shore of eastern end of Long Island, 
northeast of Hampton, Long Island. 

By boat only. 

An island of unusual interest because of its 
wildlife, near virgin forest, fresh -water ponds, 
and varied shoreline. It is about four miles 
long, three miles wide, with hills reaching 
heights of about 130 feet. The seaward side 
of the shoreline is eroded, forming steeply 
sloping sand cliffs at the base of which a 
narrow, sand and boulder -strewn beach slants 
off abruptly into deep water. Fresh -water 
ponds near the beaches have been formed and 
are fed by streams from the hilly area in 
the center of the island. 

The island is in private ownership and is used 
as summer residential property. 

The Fish and Wildlife Service is negotiating 
for the acquisition of the island as a 
wildlife area. It is believed no further 
study is necessary at this time. 



69 



'■•-' 



**. 













«* 



Shinnecock Inlet 




70 



Shinnecook Inlet 



Hew York 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use 



Analysis: 



Southern shore of Long Island, 90 miles east 
of Hew York City. 

By paved road. 

This seven-mile stretch of privately owned sea- 
coast has relatively few ownerships, is easily 
accessible by road and is one of the few 
remaining seashore recreation opportunities 
available to the largest population center in 
the United States. The reef is about 1,200 
feet wide and is bisected by Shinnecock Inlet. 
About 1/3 of the area lies east of the inlet, 
the other 2/3 to the west. The quality of 
the beach is outstanding. It is wide, clean 
and gently sloping. The vegetation is sparse, 
the dunes low and partly stabilised. The area 
also has historical interest. 

At the time of the reconnaissance of this area, 
82 percent of it was in the hands of the Henry 
Phipps estate. It is understood now, however, 
that this portion has been sold to real estate 
interests. The remainder involves 15 to 20 
separate ownerships. The area is used as a 
fishery station, for sun and surf bathing, and 
as a beach club, and has some summer cottages. 

The area is not as extensive as Fire Island 
but is only slightly less accessible to 
Metropolitan Hew York. 



71 



Fire Island Beach 




Sunken Forest near Point 'Woods 



72 



Fire Island 



New York 



Location: 



Accessibility: 



Description of Area: 



South shore of Long Island, about 50 miles 
east of Nev York City. 

Bridge is planned and funds are available for 
its construction at Smith Point; elsewhere 
by ferry. 

The sunken holly forest on this island is one 
of the most unique biotic communities to be 
found along the Atlantic Coast. Fire Island's 
proximity to the largest population center in the 
United States and its 18 miles of undeveloped 
beach make it of unusual significance. The 
beach is wide, clean and gently sloping. The 
dunes are for the most part stabilized and 
reach a height of 20 to 30 feet. Other than 
the holly forest, vegetation is not abundant 
or unusual. Salt marshes border the Great 
South Bay. The area has considerable 
historical value. 



Present Use: 



Analysis: 



A State park, a county park, botanical preserve, 

communities, subdivisions, and numerous 

small ownerships are contained on the island. 

The area is of extreme importance because of 
its natural features and its close proximity 
to large centers of population. It would 
be very difficult and expensive to acquire. 



73 







Long Island, North Shore 



lh 



New York 



Fisher 8 Island 



A long, narrow island, possibly 6 miles in length, located in 
Long Island Sound south and west of the city of New London, Connecticut. 
Its beaches are narrow and stony, with deep water just beyond. The 
rolling sparsely wooded hills break off sharply, here and there, at the 
beach's edge, to expose crumbling rock ledges or to become sand-and- 
boulder cliffs. In the central area of the island are several fresh- 
water ponds. Access to the island is by boat and plane. On the western 
end are important military installations which protect the submarine 
pens on the Thames River and sea operations in this area. There are 
several extensive residential developments on the island. It is be- 
lieved that further study of the island is unnecessary at this time. 



Long Island ( North Shore) 



The north shore is approximately 125 miles long and consists of 
hilly terrain with steep sand -and -boulder cliffs and narrow boulder- 
strewn beaches. The shore is marked by almost continuous development 
from west to east and from the shore inland. There are three State 
parks and numerous municipal beaches along the shore, with a number of 
bays and harbors being used for boat anchorage. The area contains many 
large estates and farms between the several communities along the coast. 
The undeveloped areas are, for the most part, held in large estates. The 
shoreline and beaches are not as conducive to public recreational use as 
those on the southern shore of Long Island. 



75 



New York 



Plum Island 



A triangular -shaped island 1 l/2 miles long and 3/U mile 
wide with a mile -long sandspit "tail" extending eastward from 
the main body. It is located in Long Island Sound, about 1 mile 
northeast of Orient Point. The beach areas are narrow and stony 
and the foreshore becomes deep rather quickly. Interrupting the 
beach areas are sandy cliffs. Behind the cliff s, the terrain 
is hilly and generally treeless. Near the west -central end of 
the island is a small fresh-water pond. The island is quite 
highly developed, including military installations, and it is 
understood the United States Department of Agriculture has 
leased a portion of the area from the military and is developing 
a multimillion dollar research laboratory. The existing develop- 
ments and those planned indicate this area will require no 
further study at this time. 



77 



NEW JERSEY 




NEW YORK 



-'\. 



PE NN 



New York 

[ 55k V > Sandy Hook 

rU Hlihlil 

j so; 
\ ( / \V rjgtfLonfl Booch 

nton^lx \ {yAtbury Pork 

lordontown \ £T 

Point Pltotont 



Vt 

' Atlanlic City q 



T 

O 
O 



•TYPoctan City 



A. 

T 



DEL 



CMPx7S*v0tt Hila Beach £J 

"Wild Wood 
Capo May 

SCALE OF MILES 
10 10 20 30 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SEASHORE RECREATION AREA SURVEY 

WASHINGTON OFFICE 

VICINITY MAP SHOWING 

UNDEVELOPED SEASHORE AREAS 

D.WG. no NEW JERSEY sept. 1955 



79 



- v? : 



Beach Haven, Long Beach 





Brigantine Inlet North 



80 



Little Egg Harbor Area 



Nev Jersey 



Location: 



Accessibility: 



Description of Area: 



The beaches and harbor of Brigantine Inlet 
in the vicinity of Beach Haven. 

By paved road to below Beach Haven; by boat 
to other portions. 

Considered the most valuable coastal marsh 
area along the Atlantic Coast. It is the 
wintering grounds of the Atlantic brant and 
contains the largest colony of laughing gulls 
along the east coast. The beaches to the north 
and south of Brigantine Inlet are about five 
miles in length. The undeveloped portions 
of the beaches are washed over and unstable . 
A study is being made by the Corps of Engineers 
to determine the rate of erosion and probable 
cost of stabilization of this section of the 
seashore. 



Present Use 



Analysis : 



A portion of the coastal marsh area is under 
the administration of the Fish and Wildlife 
Service. The southern terminus of Long Beach 
is privately owned and the beach south of 
Brigantine Inlet is owned by the Borough of 
Brigantine. 

The area should be preserved because of its 
outstanding biological values . The northern 
portion of this area is now under consideration 
for addition to the Brigantine Wildlife Refuge 
and is admirably suited for that purpose. 



81 







"3£v V s 





Bird Sanctuary, Stone Harbor 



^-: . 




Seven Mile Beach 



82 



Seven Mile Beach 



New Jersey 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



Portion of the barrier reef between 
Avalon and Stone Harbor. 

By paved road. 

There are 2 l/2 miles of undeveloped beach, 
from 100 to 200 feet vide. The sand is 
clean but dark, and the beach area slopes 
rather steeply into the water. The dunes 
are numerous and stable, and some reach 25 
feet in height. The bird sanctuary within 
the Borough of Stone Harbor is of great 
scientific importance because of a heron 
rookery and because the biotic community 
is typical of plant and animal life as it 
existed on the strand before human 
habitation. 

There are occasional residences and some 
evidence of real estate promotion. 

If the communities of Avalon and Stone Harbor 
expand, they will encroach upon the undevel- 
oped area which lies between them. This 
procedure seems inevitable. 



83 



Sandy Hook 



Nev Jersey 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



Northern terminus of long barrier reef 
extending from Long Branch to north of 
Highlands . 

By paved road. 

One of the best areas within the metropolitan 
zone of Greater New York and the New Jersey 
cities of this vicinity. Its four types of 
biotic communities — beach grass, shrub, forest, 
and salt marsh — are as typical and as nearly 
natural as any in New Jersey. They contain a 
good variety of plant species including Ameri- 
can holly and beach plum. There is a coast 
line of about 13 miles on both the Atlantic 
Ocean and Sandy Hook Bay. The beach is 200 
to 300 feet wide and somewhat steeply sloping 
into the water. The sand is light -colored, 
clean, hard and fine. 

The entire peninsula is a United States 
Military Reservation of great strategic 
importance to the defense of New York. 

Its importance to the military precludes the 
possibility of its use for recreational pur- 
poses at the present time. Its value as a 
public recreation area should never be dis- 
missed, however, and it should eventually be 
put to this use when circumstances permit. 



85 






8*." 



',.< , , 



• v 






'*% 



i3te 



Beach at Conoakonk Point 



86 



New Jersey 



Conaskonk Point 



A 267 -acre triangular plot of land thrusting northwardly into 
Raritan Bay. The land is low, marshy, and subject to partial tidal 
inundation. The beach is narrow, about 8,000 feet long, and is 
littered with driftwood and other debris. There are no sand dunes or 
shrub or forest communities, and the water appears to carry some 
pollution. 



Seabright Beach 



A narrow, k r 000-foot long, portion of a barrier reef extending 
from Sandy Hook to Long Branch. The beach area is barren of vegeta- 
tion and the small amount of undeveloped land remaining is gradually 
being replaced by residential properties. 



Long Branch Beach 



An extremely small piece of land close to the city of Long 
Branch completely surrounded by residential developments and void 
of sand dunes and vegetative cover. 



Manasquan 



A strip of coastal shoreline, about 2,!kX) feet in length, south 
of Sea Girt and north of Manasquan. The remaining small portion of 
undeveloped land is being encroached upon by the two expanding com- 
munities. 



87 



Hew Jersey 



Long Beach 



The undeveloped southern end of Long Beach is a barrier island, 
about 3,000 feet long and 2,000 feet vide, and contains approximately 
150 acres of land. There is some grass, but there are no trees or 
shrubs. A considerable portion of the beach is inundated at high 
tide and is unsafe for bathing because of undertow and riptides. 



Absecon Inlet Beach 

About 260 acres of land are contained in the 1 l/l+ miles of 
undeveloped beach on the southern tip of Brigantine Beach. The 
beach is clean and vide but subject to severe erosion. Corrective 
measures to date have failed to stop this erosion. Tides flowing 
through Absecon Inlet cause the beach to be unsafe for bathing. If 
erosion is controlled the area vill undoubtedly be developed by the 
Borough of Brigantine. 



89 



••& _ ■■— III 




..*»- 





Corson Inlet 



-I--, 



SB i 



! "TZ 



Bs:: 
-41 



W-'.^*t 






Ludlam Beach 



90 



New Jersey 



Corson Inlet Beaches 



North and south of Corson Inlet are two undeveloped beach areas, 
The north beach is about 3,000 feet long and the south beach about 
1,000 feet. Together the beaches comprise approximately 100 acres 
of land, portions of which are subject to tidal inundation. There 
is little vegetation on the areas. Because of currents through the 
inlet, the possibility of undertow and riptides exists, placing a 
questionable value on the usefulness of the areas for bathing pur- 
poses. 



Ludlam Beach 



A mile -long beach lying between Sea Isle City and Townsend 
Inlet which possesses some vegetation and generally stable dunes. 
The beach is from 200 to 300 feet wide, but dips somewhat steeply 
into the water. The beach is being constricted by the expanding 
growth of the two cities and, it can be assumed, will be absorbed 
by them. 



Hereford Inlet Beach 



The southern end of the barrier reef that extends from Townsend 
Inlet to Hereford Inlet is undeveloped. The 1 mile of beach contains 
an excellent example of the original plant-animal community typical 
of the New Jersey coast. In addition, a bird sanctuary, which has 
been set aside by the community of Stone Harbor, is a portion of this 
area. The sanctuary and as much buffer area as possible should be 
preserved in public ownership. The lower portion of the beach is low, 
marshy and subject to erosion. It could serve as a community public 
beach area. 



91 



I* 






Two Mile Beach, Stone Harbor 





"4 



<\ ♦ ' 



South Cape May 



92 



New Jersey 



Two Mile Beach 



There are two miles of undeveloped beach at the southern end 
of the barrier reef that lies between Hereford Inlet and Cape May 
Inlet. The beach is wide, flat and clean. Sand dunes are numerous, 
low and stable. The entire area has a good cover of grass and 
shrubs and on the southern portion there is a long, narrow grove 
of good sized trees. It is reported the area is being held by a 
development company and it is presumed that the community of Wild- 
Crest will expand in the direction of the beach area. 



South Cape May 



This area is a portion of the coastal headland of Cape May 
that lies between Cape May Point and the community of Cape May. 
There are about 7,000 feet of shore line along the Atlantic Coast. 
The beach is narrow, dark-stained and littered. The dunes are low 
and unstable. 



West Cape May 



The area is located near the southermost tip of New Jersey on 
the western, or Delaware Bay, side. It is roughly square in shape, 
about a mile long on each of its four sides. The beach is narrow 
and the sand dark but clean. The dunes are more like ridges and 
appear to be stable. A larger portion of the area is gently rolling, 
partly forested and partly farmed. The remaining portion is low and 
swampy, providing a favorable wildlife habitat. 



93 



DELAWARE 



Wilmington 



PE NN_ J 

MARYLAND I 



10 



SCALE OF MILES 




Rehoboth Beach 
North 

Rehoboth Beach 



Bethany Beach 



Salisbury 



Ocean City 



20 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SEASHORE RECREATION AREA SURVEY 

WASHINGTON OFFICE 

VICINITY MAP SHOWING 

UNDEVELOPED SEASHORE AREAS 

owe. no DELAWARE feb.isss 



95 



Rehohoth Beach North 




y 




96 



Rehoboth Beach North 



Delaware 



Location: 
Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use 



Analysis : 



North of Rehoboth Beach to Cape Henlopen. 

By beach buggy, Jeep and boat. 

Near Cape Henlopen is an extensive form- 
ation of sand dunes reaching 70 feet 
in height. South of the dunes is a low 
and pertly marshy area of about 1,500 acres 
(Gordon Pond) with 2 miles of excellent 
beach, and tree and shrub cover that pro- 
gresses from sparse to medium density inward 
from the beach. Continuing southward, a 
strip averaging about 800 to 1,000 feet in 
width along the shore is characterized by 
medium-sized dunes and clean, gently sloping 
beach. In! and from the beach and intermit- 
tently along the bay side, there are good 
stands of trees and shrubs. 

At Cape Henlopen is Fort Miles, an Army 
installation, whose development occupies 
all of the cape and some of the larger 
dunes to the south. Most of the area south 
of Fort Miles property to Just north of 
Rehoboth Beach is owned by the State of 
Delaware . 

The area, if retained in public ownership, 
would serve well as a seashore recreation 
area when the demand warrants its use. 



97 



W?!5r£jjr r *^& r '~ 



r '. 




Bethany Beach 




Fenvick Island 
98 



l^ta 



Delaware 



Bethany Beach North 

Two and one -half miles of good beach, directly north of Bethany 
Beach and adjacent to State -owned property below Indian River Inlet, 
would be a desirable addition to the State lands, thereby providing 
a continuous stretch of public beach from just south of Dewey Beach 
to Bethany Beach, a distance of over 10 miles. However, these lands 
are in private ownership and portions are being subdivided and sold. 



99 



Delaware 



Dewey Beach South 



This area is a small segment of undeveloped beach lying between 
Dewey Beach and the State -owned land to the south, and is similar in 
character to that already possessed by the State. If the present 
holdings of the State of Delaware are expanded, it should be con- 
sidered. 



Fenwick Island South 



This area is another small segment of undeveloped beach land between 
the Maryland State line and the State holdings immediately to the north. 
Here again this would, if acquired, extend the present holdings of 
the State of Delaware for public recreational purposes. 



101 




h %|^£X 



J^ Princess 
Chance 

« 
~6 




Wallops Island 
Assawoman Island 

Metomkin Island 
Cedar Island 

Parramore Island 

Hog Island 

Cobb Island 
Wreck Island 

'JjjShlp Shoal Island 

Myrtle Island 
"C^ Smith Island 
"• Fisherman's Island 



lampton 
'port News 



Virginia 
Beach 




[VIRGINIA 
NORTH"cAft£UN 



SCALE OF MILES 
I i I I 1^=^=^=^-- 
10 



10 



20 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SEASHORE RECREATION AREA SURVEY 

WASHINGTON OFFICE 

VICINITY MAP SHOWING 

UNDEVELOPED SEASHORE AREAS 

DWG. NO VIRGINIA FEB 1935 



103 



Assateague Island 



Maryland 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



Off the mainland, south of Ocean City 
to Virginia State line. 

By boat only. 

A 20 -mile strand of excellent beach with 
medium lov dunes bound and restricted by 
beach grasses of varying density. Toward 
the bay the dunes fall away into heavily 
grass -covered marshes where, on the firmer 
and higher ground, patches of woodland rise. 
There are intermittent stretches of flat 
barren sands across the entire width of the 
island where blowouts have occurred. 

The area is the site of one of the largest 
seashore developments along the Atlantic 
coast. A hard-surfaced road has been con- 
structed the length of the island and lat- 
eral streets have been graded and marked 
out. Several cottages have been constructed 
and several thousand lots have been sold. 

The advanced stages of real estate develop- 
ment appear to preclude the possibility of this 
area being set aside for public recreational 
use. 



105 



Assateague Island 



Virginia 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Off mainland, from Maryland State line 
southeast to Chincoteague, Virginia. 

By boat only. 

A continuation of Assateague Island, 
Maryland, with about 12 miles of excel- 
lent beach and a luxuriant growth of 
vegetation in a relatively unspoiled 
state. The beaches are wide and clean, 
the foreshore gently sloping. This 
portion of the island is wider, has higher 
dunes and is less subject to blowouts; it 
is an excellent example of typical Atlantic 
seacoast . 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



The southern third of the island, lying 
between Chincoteague and the sea, is a 
national wildlife refuge. The island is 
undeveloped. 

Compatible use of this area might be 
considered so that the excellent quality 
of its recreational resources could be 
utilized to the greatest advantage. 



107 



Ocean Beach 




Gull Rookery, Parramore Island 



108 



Parramore Island 



Virginia 



Location: 
Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



5 miles off Wachapreague, Virginia. 

By boat only. 

It is the longest in the chain of coastal 
islands lying off the Virginia Eastern 
Shore. The island is undeve loped and 
relatively unspoiled, and its beach offers 
excellent opportunities for bathing, surf 
casting and other forms of seashore recre- 
ation. Within the forested area on the 
island are several fresh -water ponds and 
marshes which attract migratory waterfowl; 
along the west side of the island is an 
interesting salt marsh zone. The island 
is 7? miles long, averages three -fourths 
of a mile in width and contains approximately 
6,255 acres of land. 

Privately owned and used by Mrs. Jean Maxwell 
Saunders and Dr. Carl J. Schmidlapp. It is 
understood, however, that the Navy has re- 
cently requested funds to obtain the island 
for a target range. 

It is one of the best remaining undeveloped 
area along this section of the Atlantic 
coast, with important scenic and wildlife 
values, and would make an excellent public 
seashore recreation area. 



109 



^fe 



^SJfr 



2#* 



Hog Island 




^1 












\ 



•iu' 



110 



Hog I 8 land 



Virginia 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



5 miles off the Eastern Shore of Virginia, 
Just south of Parramore Island. 

By boat only. 

This island is almost a barren strip of sand, 

6 miles long by less than 1 mile vide. Since 
1900, the entire village of Broad Water --a 
town of several hundred people with a church, 
school and post office --has been vashed into 
the sea. The lower half of the beach is filled 
with stumps of trees and bordered with piles 

of dead tree trunks and bushes. Vegetation is 
sparse; there are seme scrub trees and bushes 
well back from the beach. 

The island has no residents. There is limited 
grazing, and the island is visited occasionally 
by fishing parties. 

The considerable washing away of sections of the 
island and its isolated position are obstacles 
to its consideration as a public seashore 
recreation area. If the dunes and shoreline 
were stabilized, it would make an attractive 
area. 



Ill 



V M\ 






«.-. 



S§&> 




t»«*. 






Cobb Island 



112 



Virginia 



Cobb Island 



Directly south of Hog Island and about 8 miles from the 
mainland lies Cobb Island. It is less than 6 miles in length 
and almost devoid of vegetation. The beach is wide and fairly 
clean but the foreshore dips rather sharply into the sea. It 
is understood that this island also once supported a community 
which has been washed away by the sea. The processes of erosion 
and its isolation deter its consideration as a public seashore 
recreation area. 



Wreck Island 



An island off the Eastern Shore of Virginia directly east 
of Cape Charles and south of Cobb Island, which supports only a 
marshy type of vegetation. The dunes are low and unstable, with 
indications that this island has been washed over many times. 
There is no high, firm ground on the island. Its low elevation, 
isolation, and erosion difficulties make it undesirable for con- 
sideration as a public seashore recreation area. 



Ship Shoal Island 



This island lies directly south of Wreck Island. It is 
similar in character and does not warrant consideration as a 
public recreation area. 



113 



Virginia 



Wallops Island 



An island off the Eastern Shore of Virginia, south of Chin- 
coteague and east of Mappsville, which possesses some sizable 
portions of forested land, narrow beaches, a few dunes, and evi- 
dences of erosion. It contains an anti-aircraft military installa- 
tion which is the only development on the island. The area is not 
as desirable for seashore recreation purposes as some of its neigh- 
bors, such as Assateague or Parramore Islands. 



Assawoman Island 



Just to the south of Wallops Island lies Assawoman, similar 
in character but with less cover. This is a target area under 
military jurisdiction. The island is undeveloped. 



Metomkin Island 



A slender, finger -like island, south of Assawoman Island and 
east of Accomac, possessing very little vegetative cover, narrow 
littered beaches, and unstable dunes. The island is undeveloped. 
The island does not possess the resources desirable for a public 
seashore recreation area. 



U5 



Virginia 



Cedar Island 



An island lying northeast of Wachapreague and southeast of 
Accomac vhich contains some good tree and shrub cover, and is 
wider than the island Immediately to the north. The beaches 
are broader and less littered. The island has been subdivided 
and lots are being sold in anticipation of the construction of 
a causeway or bridge from the mainland. The island is not as 
desirable for seashore recreation purposes as Parramore Island, 
directly to the south, and would, no doubt, be excessive in cost, 



Myrtle Island 



One of the chain of small washed-over islands lying off 
the Eastern Shore of Virginia east and south of Cape Charles, 
it is barren of vegetation. It is not considered desirable 
as a potential seashore recreation area. 



117 



Virginia 



Smith Island 



Near the southern tip of the Eastern Shore of Virginia lies 
Smith Island. This area, like the others in the immediate 
vicinity, lacks the necessary natural resources to qualify it as 
a potential public seashore recreation area. 



Fisherman's Island 



The smallest of the islands lying off the Eastern Shore of 
Virginia is directly south of Cape Charles. It is similar in 
character to Smith Island, and is not considered desirable as 
a potential public seashore recreation area. 



119 



Petersburg^ 

G \l N i Suff 
' A 




^cr 



Shackleford Banks 
Bogue Banks 
Bear Island 
Island 
Beach 

ty 



Myrt It Beach 
/ // 



10 20 30 40 50 



LJ 



O 



O 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SEASHORE RECREATION AREA SURVEY 

WASHINGTON OFFICE 

VICINITY MAP SHOWING 
UNDEVELOPED SEASHORE AREAS 

owg.no NORTH CAROLINA FEB. 1955 



121 










> 



Core Banks 




122 



Core Banks 



North Carolina 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



Barrier reef running from Ocracoke Inlet 
to Cape Lookout. 

By boat and plane only. 

Core Banks, 33 miles in length, along vith 
Portsmouth Island, 9 miles long, are low, 
marshy barrier beaches almost devoid of 
tree or shrub vegetation. The scattered 
dunes are low and unstable; the beaches are 
wide, clean and gently sloping. Inaccessi- 
bility and the low, barren nature of these 
islands have prevented development. 

A fishing village exists on Portsmouth 
Island and about 30 to UO fishing cottages 
have been built on Core Banks. 

If the Core Banks could be restored by an 
adequate sand fixation program, they would 
possess first-rate potentialities as public 
beaches . 



123 




■ linn i Mm gMLi 





Shaeklef ord Bankf- 



12^ 



Shackle ford Banks 



North Carolina 



Location : 



Barrier reef running between Barden 
Inlet and Beaufort Inlet. 



Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



By boat only. 

The island contains well- elevated land 
and expands to widths of one -half to 
three-quarters of a mile. Dunes rise 
to a height of 20 to 25 feet. The 8-mile 
ocean beach is clean and attractive but 
not as wide as that of Core Banks. The 
biotic communities of the western portion, 
if allowed to develop naturally for a 
period of years, could become of consider- 
able scientific importance. 

About 10 fishing cottages are located on 
the island. 

This is a potentially valuable public beach 
of a type that might well render greatest 
service if acquired for that purpose and 
kept in natural condition. 



125 




**, 



■ . 



I 



'?& «-, 






Bogne Banks 



126 



Bogue Banks 



North Carolina 



Location : 
Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use 



Analysis 



West of Salter Path, 3 l/2 miles. 

By road. 

A typical barrier reef some 9 miles in 
length with an average width of l/2 mile. 
Its beach is smooth, uniform and gentle 
in slope. Roughly two-thirds of the 
island is covered with dense, windswept 
woodland, dominated by live oak in associ- 
ation with hornbeam, holly, red mulberry, 
laurel oak and devil's- walking- stick. The 
dunes are up to 25 feet in height and 
generally stabilized. The area contains 
approximately 2,800 acres of land. 

Eight persons have combined to develop, 
promote and sell lots in a subdivision 
called Emerald Isle by the Sea. 

The area is easily accessible and adapt- 
able for public recreational use. It 
possesses the features necessary for 
this purpose. Acquisition of this area 
may be difficult and expensive. 



127 



Onslow Beach 



North Carolina 



Location : 



A segment of seashore lying between Browns 
and New River Inlets, southwest of Swanboro, 
North Carolina. 



Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use : 



By road. 

There are about 7 miles of good beach with 
numerous stabilized dunes (not as spectacular 
as those immediately to the north of Onslow 
Beach) and a generous cover of tree and shrub 
vegetation that is comparatively natural. 

Used by U. S. Marine Corps for training in 
amphibious landings and other related 
activities. 



Analysis: 



This area possesses excellent seashore values 
and should be retained in public ownership for 
recreation and conservation of natural values, 
when it becomes surplus to military require- 
ments . 



129 



Federal Point 



North Carolina 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use : 



Analysis : 



South of Kure Beach and north of Corncake 
Inlet. 

By road. 

A triangular point bordered by the Atlantic 
Ocean and Cape Fear River, which contains a 
fair stand of trees and shrubs. The beach 
shows severe signs of erosion and is low and 
marshy at intervals. The dunes are insig- 
nificant. Most of the site of old Fort 
Fisher is now under water. The area is 
easily accessible and contains approximately 
1,000 acres of beach property suitable for 
recreation. 

Used as a fishing base, and is advertised 
for residential resort development. 

Could be considered for public recreation 
use if other more desirable areas, such as 
Smith Island, are not acquired for this 
purpose. The Civil War history of Fort 
Fisher should be more fully interpreted. 



131 





Smith Island 



132 



Smith Island 



North Carolina 



Location : 
Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Northwest of Southport about 2 l/2 miles. 
By boat. 

Considered to be among the five most out- 
standing undeveloped areas for recreation 
purposes along the Atlantic coast, the 
island has excellent vegetative cover and 
outstanding biological values. About 6 
miles long with an average width of 2 l/k 
miles, it contains about 11,900 acres of 
land, marsh, and fresh -water lakes. The 
two beaches, about 5 miles long, are wide, 
with clean white sand. The dunes are 
stable. Because of the well -developed 
forest and salt marsh, birds are more 
plentiful than on many Atlantic coast sea 
islands. It has outstanding historical 
values . 



Present Use 



Analysis: 



Privately owned and used by Mr. Frank 0. 
Sherrill of Charlotte, North Carolina. 

This is an outstanding area with excel- 
lent qualifications for public seashore 
recreation purposes. It does not appear 
that it would be difficult to acquire or 
unusually expensive. 



133 



North Carolina 



Bear Island 



An island, off the mainland between Bogue and Bear Inlets, 
south of Swansboro, North Carolina, which is about 3 miles in 
length. It possesses dunes that approach the spectacular and 
contains a fair cover of trees and shrubs. The beach is wide 
and clean. The island is inaccessible by road but is sufficiently 
tied to the mainland by marshes so that road connections should not 
be prohibitively expensive. It possesses the natural resources 
desired for a public seashore recreation area and should be con- 
sidered in planning for the future needs of the public. The 
superiority of both Smith Island and Bogue Banks precludes its 
consideration at this time. 



Brown Island 



This island lies directly south of Bear Island, and is similar 
in character, desirability and length but with more vegetative cover 
and dunes a little less impressive in height The island is inac- 
cessible by road at the present time. Its consideration, like Bear 
Island, is secondary to that of Smith Island and Bogue Banks at this 
time. 



135 



North Carolina 



Surf City (Northern part) 



The undeveloped portion of this harrier reef, north of Surf 
City, has excellent dunes, a wide, firm, clean heach and a gently 
sloping foreshore. The vegetation is fair and the reef very 
narrow. The road extends some lU miles north of the city hut 
almost half of this area is now occupied hy summer cottages. 
Although it possesses the resources necessary for a public sea- 
shore recreation area, it is secondary in importance to Bogue 
Banks and Smith Island. 



Hutaff 's Beach 



Between New Topsail Inlet and Rich Inlet is a 1-mile segment 
of harrier heach called Hutaff 's Beach. It is not accessible by 
road. The character of the area is similar to that found at Surf 
City and it is desirable for public recreation purposes. It is sec- 
ondary in importance, however, to Bogue Banks and Smith Island. 



Foy's Beach 



South of Hutaff 's Beach lies Foy's Beach, a 2 -mile stretch of 
harrier reef with interesting tree cover, sizable dunes, and a wide 
firm, clean beach. It is inaccessible by road. Although superior 
to the islands immediately to the north it does not equal the qual- 
ity of Bogue Banks and Smith Island. 



137 




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SEASHORE RECREATION AREA SURVEY 

WASHINGTON OFFICE 

VICINITY MAP SHOWING 
UNDEVELOPED SEASHORE AREAS 

DWG NO SOUTH CAROLINA FEB 1955 



139 



Waiter Island 



South Carolina 



Location : 



At Little River Inlet, just below the 
North Carolina State line, offshore from 
mainland . 



Accessibility: 
Description of Area 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



By boat only. 

The island possesses a luxuriant natural 
growth on the back lands next to the 
marsh. In transition from the back lands 
to the ocean are medium dune formations 
held in a variety of patterns, sizes and 
forms by windswept trees and shrubs. Next 
to the beach the 6 to 8 feet high dunes 
are generally stabilized by grassy plants. 
The 3 -mile beach is wide, gently sloping, 
and comparatively clean. 

The island appears to be completely unde- 
veloped and unused except for occasional 
fishing parties. 

The area merits consideration as a possi- 
ble seashore reserve to meet future needs. 



1U1 




Debidue Island 



11+2 



Debidue Island 



South Carolina 



Location: 
Accessibility: 
Description of Area! 



Present Use: 



Analysis: 



Southeast of Myrtle Beach about 25 miles. 

By road. 

The island has a wide and appealing beach, 
a large variety of both plants and animals 
in the hinterland, and marshes which attract 
many wateffowl during the migratory season, 
and is easily accessible from a main tourist 
highway. It is about 5 miles in length with 
an average width of 3 miles and contains 
about 8,400 acres of land and marsh. 

All but 10^ acres (owned by Bernard Baruch) 
is privately owned and used by Mrs. Anne 
Preston Emerson and her two grandsons, 
George W. Vanderbilt and Alfred Gwynne 
Vanderbilt . 

It offers one of the few remaining oppor- 
tunities in South Carolina for a public 
seashore recreation area with an excellent 
beach and interesting biological features. 



1^3 




Kiavah Island 



,0m 



% 



am 



9 




lUh 



Kiawah Island 



South Carolina 



Location: 
Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Southeast of Charleston about 25 miles. 

By road. 

A 9-mile -long island with an average width 
of l\ miles and containing about 7>3°0 acres 
of land and marsh; it has an excellent beach 
and good vegetative cover. More than half 
of the island is covered with a mixed forest 
of live oak, loblolly pine, southern magnolia, 
and cabbage palmetto. The dunes rise to a 
height of 20 feet and are stable. The 
beach slopes gradually to the surf with 
varying widths of from 50 to 150 feet between 
high and low tides. It is easily accessible 
by road from Charleston, South Carolina. 

Title to the island is in the names of 
Eugenia M. Royal and A. C. Wingo, Trustees. 
The Kiawah Development Company (C. C. Royal, 
president, and wife, Eugenia M. Royal, 
secretary) purchased 110 acres on the island 
for development purposes, of which 70 acres 
have been subdivided. 



Analysis: 



The area is being logged and developed 
for residential purposes. It would require 
quick action to save sufficient acreage for 
public recreation purposes. Five years ago 
it was unspoiled and very desirable but now 
the feasibility of its acquisition is ques- 
tionable. 



1*5 



South Carolina 



North Island 



An Island off the mainland, southeast of Georgetown and 
directly south of Debidue Island, which contains a 7-mile strand 
of good beach in front of dunes that reach heights of about 25 
feet. It has a fine, deep tree cover near the beach composed of 
pine, oak, palm, magnolia and wax myrtle. It possesses the re- 
sources necessary for a public seashore recreation area to a 
greater degree than Debidue Island but is inaccessible and the 
building of a causeway or bridge to the island would be exces- 
sively costly. Debidue Island would be preferable to North Island 
as a public use area because it is more easily accessible. 



Morris Island 



Lying about 7 miles southeast of Charleston across the mouth 
of the harbor from Moultrieville, this area has a beach of 3? 
miles in extent. It is low and marshy with scattered clumps of 
trees in back of medium-sized dunes. The island is undeveloped 
but lacks road access. The advantage of this island is its prox- 
imity to a large population center. Because of its location and 
present value this island should be given consideration as a 
possible public seashore recreation area. 



147 




..* ~ '-•-' * ^ lijt"'^'*" 



Hilton Head Island 




1U8 



South Carolina 



Fripp Island 



This island is about 16 miles southeast of Beaufort, off the 
mainland, and adjacent to Hunting Island State Park. It has a 
little over 3 miles of firm, sandy beach. The forest area consists 
of pine, oak, and palmetto. The dunes are of medium height and 
stabilized. The area would serve in an excellent capacity as an 
overflow for the existing State park to the north as the demand 
increases. The island is inaccessible at the present but could be 
bridged from Hunting Island State Park. 



Hilton Head 



The largest of the islands off the coast of South Carolina is 
located east of Fluffton, in the mouth of the Broad River. It con- 
tains some cottage developments and portions of its inland areas 
have been cultivated. Signs of active logging and development 
are apparent on the island. At present, it has dense cover, a good, 
firm beach of about 11 miles extent, and a gently sloping fore- 
shore. The island is accessible by ferry. It possesses good re- 
sources for public seashore recreation but the major portion of the 
island has been acquired for subdivision. Acquisition of the area 
for public use seems out of the question. 



1A9 




< 

LU 
O 
O 

O 



tO O SO £0 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SEASHORE RECREATION AREA SURVEY 

WASHINGTON OFFICE 

VICINITY MAP SHOWING 
UNDEVELOPED SEASHORE AREAS 

DWG NO GEORGIA FEB 1955 



151 



Qssabav Island 




152 



Ossabaw Island 



Georgia 



Location : 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 
Analysis: 



Off the mainland, about 20 miles directly 
south of Savannah, Georgia. 

By boat only. 

One of the larger islands in the Georgia 
chain with about 8 miles of beach, and 
distinguished by large pines, magnolia 
and bay. The beach is subject to erosion 
and patches of dead trees and stumps are 
scattered along the shoreline. 

Appears to be entirely undeveloped. 

The island should be considered as a 
potential public use area for the time 
when the demand exceeds the facilities 
available. 



153 



*^5JSSJ3T 




St. Catherines Island 



15U 



St. Catherines Island 



Georgia 



Location : 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 
Analysis: 



Off mainland, directly south of Ossabaw 
Island and Savannah, Georgia. 

By boat only. 

The island contains about 10 miles of 
ocean beach which is variable in quality. 
It is eroding at its south end, and, to 
the north, low and marshy lands alternate 
with dune lands. There is a variety of 
trees such as pine, oak, juniper and 
palmetto. None of the vegetation, however, 
is in a natural condition. The area is 
historically important, being the first of 
a chain of outposts established by the 
Spanish in 1566. 

As a winter home for its present owner. 

The island has the necessary resources to 
qualify as a public recreation area and 
should be so considered when the public 
need is sufficient to warrant its use in 
this manner. 



155 



Sapelo Island 



Georgia 



Location : 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis: 



Off mainland directly south of St. 
Catherines Island and Savannah, 
Georgia . 

By boat only. 

Similar in character and length to St. 
Catherines Island. The vegetation is 
variable, ranging from sparse to heavy 
and from low to high cover interspersed 
with open savannas. There are signs of 
erosion and timber cutting. The beach 
is variable in quality but superior to 
many on the Atlantic coast. 

It is privately owned and used by 
Mr. R. J. Reynolds. 

Like the rest of the Golden Isles of 
Georgia the island possesses the resources 
desirable for a seashore recreational area, 
It is important that it be considered in 
meeting the needs of the public for areas 
of this type. 



157 



Cumberland Island 




Plum Orchard, Cumberland Island 



158 



Cumberland Island 



Georgia 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area 



Present Use: 
Analysis : 



Off coast of Georgia. Southern tip 
reaches Georgia -Florida State line. 

By boat and plane. 

An area believed to be of national sig- 
nificance and one of the two most out- 
standing undeveloped seashore areas remaining 
along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts . The 
island is about 22 miles long and from l/2 
to 3 l/2 miles wide. It contains approximately 
22,000 acres, 18,000 of which are upland and 
U,000 marsh lands. It has 22 miles of wide, 
firm, gently sloping beach. The forests contain 
live oak, cabbage palmetto, longleaf pine, 
southern magnolia, red cedar, holly and red 
bay. The dunes reach a height of 30 feet and 
are stabilized. The area has taken a prominent 
part iri the history of several nations. 

Privately owned and used by heirs of the 
Carnegie estate. 

An area of outstanding importance and one 
that should be acquired and preserved for 
appropriate public use. 



159 



i.% -V * 






9 



~k^ ->M' 



& 



4> 



;ii. 






>v 



A 







Waasav Island 



160 



Georgia 



Tybee Island 



The island is directly south of Savannah Beach; off the 
mainland and inacessible by car, it has about 7 miles of fair beach. 
It is low, marshy and unadorned with trees in any sizable stands. 
The area is inferior in quality to most of the Georgia islands and re- 
ceives a low priority for future consideration as a public seashore 
recreation area. 



Was saw Island 



Southeast of Savannah and immediately south of Tybee Island 
lies Wassaw. This island is well -wooded and has about k miles of 
very good beach. Large dunes appear near the north end of the 
island. It is inaccessible by car and undeveloped. There are some 
signs of erosion. There is practically no shrub zone on the island 
but there are indications of an old forest, burned and cut over, and 
a relatively young loblolly pine forest. It does not rate a high 
priority in excellence but should be catalogued for future considera- 
tion. 



161 



Georgia 
Wolf Island 



This island lies immediately to the south of Sapelo Island 
and just north of Little St. Simons Island. It is about 2 miles 
long, and inaccessible. The island, topographically, is a low 
tree -barren marsh. The area does not require further study at 

this time. 



Jekyll Island 



The area was acquired by the State in 19^7 and is now acces- 
sible by passenger car. It is being developed for public seashore 
recreation use and residential sites. The latter are being leased 
by private individuals along the seashore in some of the most desir- 
able sections of the area. The residences of former owners and the 
hotel are being renovated and placed in shape for vacation resort 
use. 



163 



r- 



Dothon 



■Pensacola. 



u\ 



( 



I bony 



HK 



'ana i 



;.t y/ 



I yfw] 



Thomo|yill« 



O 



St. Joseph Spi 



f)Spit-[ 



i/ 

/Tallahassee 

* St Joe ^98 
icol 



joy 

iWaycrbss \)$2& 
Brunswick 



\ 



\ 



u> 



Jacksonville" 



|St Augustiru 



UJ 



Guono 
River 



[Morineland- 
Fiagler Beach 



u> 



SCALE OF MILES 
■ ■ I I r—- 



20 



20 



60 



Daytona Bch- 

New Smyrna Bchi 

■-\ \ \ 5 

>Prlando 



.Lakeland 
>t. 7 PetersMng „ V 

Lake Wales 
Vlenton / J_* |60L (44i) „ 



Mosquito 
.Lagoon 



k %. 



Locos to /stand ( 



Pun to Rosso - 
Naples 

Marco Beach - 



v 



\Fort Pie reel 
-0rW^Hfl|f\/2L 

■ V * ° 

Fort Myers^^i Jt A "^ % 

eoL i**° 
n BcT 



r*^^£verglades 
rS"t. Lauderdpley 



-*0fev Miami* 



'««£%; 



5v^»* 



% 



'Miami 
Beach 



o 



/Oy Lor go - Key 
Key West J/. 



/ 



Key Largo 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SEASHORE RECREATION AREA SURVEY 

WASHINGTON OFFICE 

VICINITY MAP SHOWING 

UNDEVELOPED SEASHORE AREAS 

DWG NO FLORIDA MAR 1955 



165 



SofthPonteVedrall^ 

8k SIO t c c K ja™"s ATi «.DAv, N , 



06VEL0PERS 




Developer's Signboard, Guano River Area 





Guano River Area 



166 



Florida 



Guano River 



A strip of coastline between Jacksonville and St. Augustine 
extending some lU miles and containing about 10,000 acres of land. 
The sand beach has good quality, an average width of about 200 
feet and a moderate slope. The dunes reach a height of about 50 
feet and are generally stable. Highway A1A traverses the dunes, 
about U00 to 500 feet back from the beach, the full length of the 
area. This portion of the seashore possesses the characteristics 
that are desired of a seashore recreation area but it is in many 
individual ownerships and the development of the ocean -front high- 
way will open the entire area for development. It may be feasible 
for the State to purchase land between the highway and the ocean 
front for right-of-way, thereby preserving a portion of the area 
for recreation purposes. 



167 




S^s^^*-^ 




■■■• 



North of Fort Pierce Inlet 



168 



Florida 



Marineland -Flagler Beach 



This area is a portion of the mainland, and lies immediately 
south of the community of Marineland and a few miles north of 
Flagler Beach. It extends for about 7 miles, has an average width 
of three-quarters of a mile and contains approximately 3,000 acres, 
The beach is of medium quality with a stony foreshore and some 
marine growth. The vegetation is sparse. Highway A1A is being re- 
constructed on a new location which will traverse and despoil this 
undeveloped section. 



Fort Pierce Inlet (North) 



This area is located near the southern end of a long, barrier 
reef which begins at Sebastian Inlet and extends southwardly to Fort 
Pierce Inlet. It is about k miles in length with a width of not 
more than 1 mile and contains approximately 2,000 acres of land. The 
beach is about 200 feet wide, clean, white, gently sloping, but with 
a steep foreshore. The dunes are low and stabilized. The marshes 
are dense with a low cover of mangrove. Highway A1A traverses the 
area from north to south. It may be well to consider this area for 
acquisition as highway right-of-way which would permit public recre- 
ation. 



169 




Mosquito River Lagoon 



170 



Mosquito Lagoon 



Florida 



Location: 



On Florida east coast south of New Smyrna 
Beach . 



Accessibility: 



Description of Area 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



By road from New Smyrna Beach and Titus - 
ville. 

A narrow reef, 2k l/2 miles in length and 
averaging about one -fourth mile in width 
which contains about 9,700 acres in its 
maze of small islands, mangrove and salt 
marshes. The beaches on the seaward side 
are less than medium width and steep, with 
a steep foreshore. The sand is hard, clean 
and white but coarse. The dunes are low 
and stabilized. The vegetation is dense 
and approaches the natural and primeval. 
It is an excellent wildlife refuge. 

The reef contains a few cottages, some 
small fishing villages, and an ocean drive. 

An exceptionally long stretch of beach, 
possessing excellent natural and historical 
values, and in an undeveloped condition, is 
most unusual in Florida. The area is highly 
desirable for public recreation use. 



171 




**K 



Hear Sebastian Inlet 



172 



Melbourne Beach -Vero Beach 



Florida 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use 



Analysis : 



South of Melbourne Beach to 2 miles east 
of Vero Beach. 

By car from either end. 

This area is a good example of a Florida 
east -coast barrier reef. It has a length 
of about 2k miles, averages one -fourth 
mile in width and covers about 7*000 acres 
of land. The beaches are good throughout 
the length of the area, although somewhat 
narrow and steep. The sand is white and 
clean. Grasses occur on the seaward ele- 
vation of the dunes. Trees and shrubs of 
good size and number grow on the flat of 
the dunes back to the river marshes. Most 
of the trees are palms, oaks and pine. 
South of Sebastian Inlet there are many 
citrus groves. 

Melbourne Beach, south to Sebastian Inlet, 
contains scattered single -family dwellings 
and a trailer camp. Route A1A traverses 
the length of the reef. South of the inlet 
the citrus groves occur and the reef is 
owned almost in its entirety by corpora- 
tions. Route A1A runs from Wabasso to Fort 
Pierce Inlet. 

The presence of Route A1A, real estate 
development activity and citrus fruit 
groves indicate that this area already has 
passed beyond the stage where it could be 
considered as available for purposes of 
public recreation. 



173 




■■•■ 




•■" • 9 






Key Deer, Big Pine Key 



17^ 



Location: 



Accessibility: 



Description of Area: 



Keys —Florida 

Off the eastern coast, south of Miami to 
the Marquesas Keys in the Gulf of Mexico. 

Many served by Overseas Highway (U. S. 
Highway l) and spur roads. 

The famed keys of Florida extend south - 
westwardly from Miami in a great sweeping 
crescent for about 160 miles. They are 
hundreds in number and vary in size, with 
Key Largo being the largest, 30 miles long 
and 3 miles wide. The lower -lying keys are 
composed mostly of mangrove swamps, and the 
keys with greater elevations contain palms 
and oaks, and some pine. The key deer in- 
habit nine of the keys, four of which (Big 
Pine, Summer land, Cudjoe and Ramrod) are 
accessible by car. Big Pine is the most 
important of these keys. No -Name, Big 
Torch and Middle Torch Keys are important 
biologically, but are not accessible by 
car. The undeveloped keys possessing 
potentialities for public recreation, other 
than bathing, are Key Largo, Long Key, 
Big Pine, Cudjoe, and Sugar loaf . There are 
no good sand beaches. The fishing is 
excellent . 



Present Use: 



Analysis: 



The keys are an outstanding tourist attrac- 
tion and are being developed for that pur- 
pose. Spur roads are being built to keys 
off the Overseas Highway. 

The protection of the key deer, particu- 
larly at Big Pine Key, is important, as is 
the preservation of the unique and impor- 
tant vegetation found in the keys area. 



175 







■ " " » - 



i *l0m* m< w*i ' 



I f w toli W 'l 



Marco Beach 



176 



Marco Beach 



Florida 



Location : 
Accessibility: 
Description of Area 



Present Use: 
Analysis: 



Just north of Cape Romano. 

By car on paved road. 

The area occupies the western half of the 
island and is about 1 mile in width and 
k miles in length. It is a rolling area 
of about 2,800 acres, triangular in shape. 
It has an extremely clean, dazzling white 
sand beach with a tropical background of 
coconut palms. The area is well-known to 
shell collectors for the variety and qual- 
ity of shells found there in abundance. 
The subtropical vegetation is in a nearly 
natural condition and of varied character. 
There is almost no dune area behind the 
beach. The island is one of the most pro- 
ductive archeological sites on the Florida 
west coast. Indian shell mounds are plenti- 
ful and each of the three villages was built 
on ancient Indian townsites. 

Little development of any kind. 

One of the outstanding seashore areas on 
the western Florida peninsula, it is sce- 
nically attractive and most suitable for 
public recreation use. 



177 









North of Naples 





BBBHHv^SK 



Indian River Area 



178 



Florida 



Gt. Lucie Inlet 



An area of 7>000 acres consisting of two segments on either 
side of St. Lucie Inlet, the one to the north running for 20 miles 
and the one to the south about k miles. The vegetative cover is 
excellent, ranging from grasses and low shrubs on the dunes, to 
generous, forestlike expanses of palms, oaks and pines. The dunes 
are lov and generally stable. The beaches, however, are narrow, 
steep and terraced, as is the foreshore. Dead stumps of trees on 
the beach indicate the amount of erosion that has taken place. 
Because of this badly eroding condition, the area is not considered 
feasible for acquisition and development as a public recreation 
area. 



Punta Rassa -Naples 



The coastal area south from Punta Rassa to Naples on the Gulf 
coast consists of a number of offshore islands, mangrove reefs and 
marshes. This stretch embraces about 12,000 acres of land and 38 
miles of shoreline with a good cross section of all the seashore 
characteristics that are typical of the Florida west coast. The 
choice areas have been depleted, however, and the ones remaining 
are of inferior quality and size for public recreation purposes. 



179 






■ -1* 




Homosassa Swamp, West of Mouth of St. Martins River 



180 



Florida 



Lacosta Island 



Two barrier- reef islands off the mainland— Lacosta Island and 
an unnamed island to the south— which lie directly west of Fort Myers 
and south of Boca Grande, have a total length of 12 miles and an 
average width of one-half mile. Both islands are accessible only by 
boat or plane, and are completely undeveloped. In the center portion 
of both islands the beaches are wide and gently sloping. At the 
north and south ends of the islands erosion is taking place. The 
dunes, where stable, are covered with vines and grass and on the 
sound side by low-growing shrubs. There are a few stands of palms 
and pines, and stretches of mangrove. The islands are too inacces- 
sible and unstable at the present time to be given consideration as 
public seashore recreation areas. 



Tarpon Springs to St. Marks 



This portion of the west coast of Florida extends for a distance 
of about 200 miles. It has very little value for purposes of public 
recreation, but does have high value as a wildlife refuge and a forest 
preserve. The general character of the area is that of a gradual 
merging of shallow, muddy foreshores, mangrove islands, salt marshes 
and swamp forests. Here and there will be found a few sand beaches, 
low, coastal ridges, and dry, pine flats. But for the most part the 
area is just one long, forbidding swamp. 



181 



/^**-*^p 




*\ * 



i 




St. Joseph Spit 






182 



St. Joseph Spit 



Florida 



Location: 
Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 
Analysis : 



10 miles south of Port St. Joe. 

By car from either end. 

An L -shaped spit some 20 miles in length, 
one -half mile in width, similar in charac- 
ter and shape, on a smaller scale, to Cape 
Cod. It has an attractive, medium width, 
white sand beach, gradual in slope, and 
clear, shallow water well offshore. There 
are high rolling dunes, as large as any in 
Florida, both vegetated and partially bare, 
and a forested area that extends from the 
dunes to the bay. The primitive and iso- 
lated character of the 5>050-acre spit, 
along with good vegetative cover, has made 
it a haven for wild animals. Birdlife is 
varied but not unusual. 

Air Force and Coast Guard installations. 

The scenic quality, biological, archeolog- 
ical, historical and recreation values of 
the area make it most desirable for public 
use. 



163 




Boy Minttte 




^Prichard, 



N#w Aug««to S 



Lucedalt, 



-7 




Wiggin* 



V 



i Lamberfort 



• Mom Pt 

Pascagoula 



Ocoan Sprs 



Bitoxi 



Golfport 



Poss Christm^/^ ^| 





New 
Orleans 



Ktnnt 



ftttwtgo 



SCALE OF MILES 



3 



10 



20 



30 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SEASHORE RECREATION AREA SURVEY 

WASHINGTON OFFICE 

VICINITY MAP SHOWING 
UNDEVELOPED SEASHORE AREAS 

0W6. NO MISSISSIPPI FEB. 1955 



185 










Perdido Bay Area 



186 



Alabama 



Perdldo Bay 



An irregularly shaped bay, forming part of the boundary between 
Alabama and Florida, 13 miles vest of Pensacola Bay entrance and 26 
miles east of Mobile Bay entrance, containing several small beaches. 
The water is shallow, dark in color, but with no surf or tide. The 
beaches are 20 to 30 feet wide, about l/2 mile long, and light brown 
in color, and the sand is fine. There are no dunes or marshes but 
interesting cliffs of some 1+0 feet in height. Dense forest cover 
extends from near the shore and back to the uplands. The timber is 
composed mostly of pine, black oak, live oak, magnolia, red bay, 
maple and myrtle. A strip of shoreland about l/2 mile in depth and 
containing approximately 2,000 acres would provide recreation oppor- 
tunities for picnicking, camping and swimming. This possibility 
should be given consideration in a region where there is a paucity 
of such opportunities. 



Per dido Pass 



The barrier reefs on both sides of Perdido Pass, a water passage 
that connects Perdido Bay with the Gulf of Mexico, known as Alabama 
Point and Florida Point, possess beaches of good quality. The slope 
of the foreshore and beaches is gentle and the sand is fine, white 
and clean. Sand dunes are numerous and rise to a height of 15 to 20 
feet. Vegetative cover is principally grass and low shrubs. The 
beach area at Alabama Point is 1 mile in extent and at Florida Point, 
2 miles. The State of Alabama plans to build groins on both sides of 
the pass, bridge the l/k mile pass from Alabama Point to Florida 
Point and develop the 2 -mile section of Florida Point as a State beach 
area. 



18? 



rr 



r 







Dauphin Island 




Fort Gaines 
188 



Alabama 



Dauphin Island 



This barrier- reef island, 15 miles long and from one-half to 
one mile in width, lies off the coast of Alabama, between Petit 
Bois and the main seaward passage to Mobile Bay. There are scattered 
pine on the eastern portion, salt marsh in the center, and dunes and 
beach on the western portion. The dunes are numerous and low; the 
beaches are wide and clean but somewhat steep. There are indications 
of erosion at both ends of the island. Fort Gaines is located at the 
eastern end of the island. A causeway has been recently completed 
connecting the island to the mainland. Development companies are 
rapidly absorbing the island. The westernmost end of the island 
(3 miles) is undeveloped and is worthy of consideration for public 
seashore recreation purposes. 



I89 




Horn Island 



Ttrjc* 



190 



Horn Island 



Mississippi 



Location : 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area 



Present Use : 



Off the mainland, between Ship Island 
and Petit Bois Island, southeast of 
Biloxi, Mississippi. 

By boat only. 

The best of the undeveloped islands off 
the Mississippi coast is about 15 miles 
long vith an average width of one -half 
mile. It contains about ^,500 acres of 
land. The beach is wide, gently sloping, 
with a fairly steep foreshore, and with 
scattered areas of erosion along the sea- 
ward side. The sand is clean, fine and 
white and the water is clear and clean. 
Dunes on the Gulf side are moderately 
high and stable. There are dense stands 
of slash pine and live oaks in elevated 
areas of the inner island, along with 
some fresh-water ponds and considerable 
marsh grass. 

An abandoned military reservation occupies 
the west end of the island; the remainder 
of the island is undeveloped and unin- 
habited. 



Analysis : 



The area possesses very good qualifications 
for public seashore recreation purposes. 
It is understood that the State of Missis- 
sippi has expressed interest in its acqui- 
sition and will endeavor to acquire certain 
portions of it. 



191 





Ship Island 



jl ' 



jr- 



wajp w %> 



Fort Massachusetts 
192 



Ship Island 



Mississippi 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



Off mainland, between Cat Island and 
Horn Island, 11 miles south of Biloxi, 
Mississippi. 

By boat only. 

The best known of Mississippi offshore 
islands and often proposed for inclusion 
in the National Park System, the area is 
8 to 9 miles long and from 500 to l+,000 feet 
wide, and contains about 1,350 acres of 
land. The eastern portion contains the 
island's only forest cover, 300 to ^00 
acres of slash pine and live oak. The 
beach varies in width and is gently sloping, 
with a fairly steep foreshore and shallow 
offshore. The sand is white, fine and 
clean; the dunes vary in height and stabil- 
ity. While the western portion of land is 
low and unstable and possesses little cover, 
there is considerable migratory birdlife 
on the island. Mosquitoes are often preva- 
lent. Fort Massachusetts is an outstanding 
historic site on the island. 

The fort and most of the island are owned 
by the Joe Morgan American Legion Post of 
Gulf port . 

Certain portions of the island should be 
retained for public recreation purposes. 
There is considerable interest in public 
acquisition of the island and in linking 
it with others off the Mississippi and 
Alabama coasts by causeway from the main- 
land. If sufficient interest is mani- 
fested by the States of Mississippi and 
Alabama, the island should be given every 
consideration as a public recreation area. 



193 



Mississippi 



Petit Bois Island 



The island is 10 miles south -southeast of Pascagoula, Mississippi, 
and is the easternmost island of the four off the Mississippi coast. 
It is 9 miles long and averages slightly less than l/2 mile in width. 
In general, it is an area of beach, dunes, salt and fresh-water marshes, 
a few small fresh -water ponds, and some palmetto and pine cover. The 
sand beach is wide, flat and clean. The dunes are fairly high and 
stable. The timber has been cut over and only a few scattered groups 
of tall pine remain. The island is undeveloped and accessible only by 
boat. The eastern half of the island is a wildlife refuge. If the 
island becomes accessible, through the linking together of these off- 
shore islands as proposed, it will be more valuable as a potential sea- 
shore recreation area. 



Cat Island 



This T-shaped sand island lying 8 miles off the mainland, south 
of Gulfport and Pass Christian, is wooded for most of its length and 
has very little vegetative cover across the "top" of the T. This 
latter portion has wide, clean beaches, low, drifting dunes, and an 
irregular and deeply-pocketed offshore. The southern tip of the island 
is awash at high tide and there are evidences of erosion at the northern 
end. The island is undeveloped except for a pier and a few small build- 
ings. It is reputed to be owned by a few wealthy sportsmen, and is 
accessible only by boat. The island is not as desirable as Horn or Ship 
Islands and does not possess their potentialities for seashore recrea- 
tion. 



195 



retna 

!$twe"go fs&* "A Grande Terre Island 

w 

Grand Isle, 



V* ."• YTimbalfer Island 




SCALE OF MILES 

I I 



UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE SEASHORE RECREATION AREA SURVEY 

WASHINGTON OFFICE 

VICINITY MAP SHOWING 
UNDEVELOPED SEASHORE AREAS 
dwg.no LOUISIANA mar 1999 



197 




Grande Terre Island 




Fort Livingston 
198 



Grande Terre Island 



Louisiana 



Location: 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use 



Analysis: 



Off coast of Louisiana, 1 mile north- 
east of Grand Isle, 50 miles due south 
of New Orleans. 

By boat only. 

The island is about 6 l/2 miles in 
length and a mile at its greatest width, 
and contains approximately 1,800 acres 
of land. The beach is about 200 feet in 
width, tan in color, and scattered with 
shells and debris. The dunes are low 
and unstable. There is very little 
forest cover. There are a few small 
fresh -water ponds, and considerable low, 
salt-grass marsh. The water is discolored 
and unattractive. Fort Livingston, a 
brick fort on the eastern end of the 
island, has been partially washed away. 

The island is undeveloped and unused 
except for grazing of livestock. There 
is an abandoned Coast Guard station near 
the fort. 

Because of the scarcity of seashore land 
along the Louisiana coast, and the his- 
torical interest attached to this area, 
the State has expressed interest in the 
acquisition of this property. 



199 




200 



Louisiana 



Chandeleur Islands 



These islands are located in the Gulf of Mexico approximately 
75 miles southeast of New Orleans. There are a hundred or more of 
them and at low tide they have a total land area of about 5,000 
acres. Many of them are awash at high tide, and all of them are 
separated and surrounded by water which is shoal. On the Gulf side 
of the islands very good beaches have been formed — clean, fairly 
wide and gentle of slope. On the sound side, the land areas are 
low, grass -covered salt marshes. There are occasional expanses of 
mangroves on the islands where the dunes are stable. The islands 
are a Federal wildlife refuge, are undeveloped and are accessible 
only by boat or plane. The best use of the islands is undoubtedly 
for wildlife purposes. 



Mississippi River Delta 



The delta of the Mississippi River is, generally, a vast ex- 
panse of salt marshes, mud flats, and shallow ponds and waterways. 
It begins approximately 50 miles southeast of New Orleans and con- 
tinues southeastwardly for another ^0 miles and then ends, fan- 
shaped, in the Gulf of Mexico. There are no land or foreshore 
areas that may be developed for recreation purposes. In the few 
places where beaches occur they are heavily silted, narrow and 
littered with shells, seaweed, driftwood and other debris. Trapping 
of fur -bearing animals, fishing, mining for sulphur and drilling 
for oil are the principal industries of the region. The Delta 
National Wildlife Refuge, occupying about 100 square miles, has been 
established near the mouth of the river. 



201 



d 



- *- ' ^^— *- - - — ^^ 




Holly Beach, Louisiana West Coast 




Timbalier Island 



202 



Louisiana 



Timbalier Island 



The island lies 30 miles due west of Grand Isle. It is 
8 miles long and 1-1/4 miles wide, and contains about 2,500 acres 
of land. The "beach is narrow and heavily littered, and its some- 
what steep slope continues offshore. Vegetation consists pri- 
marily of salt-marsh and dune grass. The island is undeveloped 
and accessible only by boat. Its seashore factors (beach, dunes, 
vegetation, etc.) are of poor quality and the island is vulner- 
able to erosion. 



West Coast -East Cote Blanche Bay to Sabine Pass 



From Atchafalaya Bay westward to Sabine Pass, a distance of 
125 miles, the coast of Louisiana is primarily one vast area of 
salt-marshes, mud flats and shallow waterways. There are no sand 
beaches, no dunes, and very little vegetation other than the plants 
of the salt-marshes. The region is relatively unused, inaccessible 
and undeveloped." Oil and gas have been found and are still being 
searched for in this area. The Sabine Rational Wildlife Refuge 
and four other game refuges are located within this span. The 
Louisiana west coast has very little value as a possible public 
recreation area. 



203 




205 




^■'■~£'"'- 



^k-4$& 



Cattle Round-up Along Coastal Highway 




jfe^ 







Coastal Highway & Beach 
206 



East Coast -Sabine Pass to High Island 



Texas 



Location: 
Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis: 



From Sabine Pass to High Island, Texas. 

By paved road. 

A 37 -mile stretch of low, slightly roll- 
ing coastline, this area contains generally 
stable sand dunes and little vegetation. 
The beach varies in width from 100 to 200 
feet, and in character from much silt, 
shells and debris to a clearer, cleaner 
span for bathing. There are also indica- 
tions of erosion at various points along 
the coast. The slope of the beach and 
foreshore varies from moderate to gentle. 

Ranching and the drilling for gas and oil 
are the principal industries. State 
Highway 87 parallels the coast. 

The eastern sector of this area is the 
least desirable because of silting con- 
ditions and the immense amount of shells 
and debris on the beach. The western 
sector is worthy of consideration as a 
potential public seashore area. 



207 




Galveston Island 



208 



Galveston Island 



Texas 



Location: 



Off mainland, southwest of Galveston, 
Texas . 



Accessibility: 



Description of Area: 



By U. S. Highway 75, Gulf Coast and 
Santa Fe rail lines and by ferry. 

This island is 12 miles in length and 
from 1 to 2 miles wide. The beach is 
flat, from 200 to 300 feet wide; the 
sand is fine hard and light -colored. 
The dunes are low, irregular, and gen- 
erally unstable. Vegetative cover con- 
sists of grasses, sedges, croton, rushes 
and juniper. The area is of considerable 
historical interest. 



Present Use: 



Analysis: 



Much of the island serves as pasture land 
for ranching; a great number of small 
tracts of land are held in individual 
ownerships . 

Expansion of municipal beach facilities 
will apparently be westward on the island. 
An express highway from Houston places 
this rapidly growing city within easy 
travel distance of the beach. The area 
will probably serve best as a metropolitan 
or a regional recreational site. 



209 




Stephen Axis tin Island 



210 



Stephen Austin Island 



Texas 



Location : 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



The peninsula lies northeast of Brazos 
River and the city of Freeport, and 
southwest of Galveston Island. 

By car over hard -packed sand from main- 
land bridge. 

This portion of a 15 -mile long peninsula 
is typical of the region but not outstand- 
ing. The beach, 9 miles long, is vide and 
the slope gentle. Portions of it are 
littered with shells and debris. In gen- 
eral, the sand is fine, clean and hard- 
packed. The land elevation is low, and the 
dunes are less than 6 feet in height and 
unstable. The plant life is limited to 
grasses and sedges with some scattered 
herbs and a few clumps of juniper shrubs. 

The first 5 miles of the peninsula are 
developed as a resort center. The San 
Luis Beach Island Development Company is 
subdividing and developing the remaining 
9 miles of the peninsula for private 
occupancy. 

Certain portions of the peninsula now 
being subdivided would make excellent 
public seashore recreation areas. The 
State of Texas is negotiating with 
Mr. F. B. Cassidy, of the San Luis Beach 
Island Development Company, for the use 
of some of these properties for this 
purpose. 



211 



..«; 



w* 



E^'S'^Kitrt* 



'<*£ '•' 




Matagorda Peninsula 




**£. 




212 



Matagorda Peninsula 



Texas 



Location : 

Accessibility: 
Description of Area 



Offshore, southeast of Matagorda, about 
midway between Galveston and Corpus 
Christi, Texas. 

By County Highway 2301. 

A 21-mile -long, narrow, offshore sand 
barrier, low in elevation. The beach is 
narrow and steep; the sand is coarse, 
light and loose-packed. Considerable 
litter and great drifts of seashells are 
found above high- tide level, and the low 
sand dunes are unstable and irregular. 
Grass is the primary vegetative cover 
with no native trees or shrubs. 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



There are scattered ranch developments 
and herds of cattle. The State is now 
negotiating for some land east of the 
Colorado River for park purposes. 

This is one of the least attractive of 
the undeveloped Texas coastal areas 
because of the poor quality of its beaches, 
dunes, vegetative cover and offshore waters, 

The State is negotiating for a portion of 
the peninsula for State park purposes. It 
is believed unnecessary to give further 
study to the area at this time. 



213 





7^ 



Cameron County Park, Padre Island 







-Y^ 



**2 



su ; 



• ■ 



Oil Rig, Padre Island 
21U 



Padre Island 



Texas 



Location : 
Accessibility: 
Description of Area: 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



Between Corpus Christ! and Port Isabel. 

Causeways at Corpus Christ! and Port Isabel. 

An offshore bar or barrier -reef island, 117 
miles in length, of which only 98 miles are 
here considered. It varies in width from 
less than one -eighth mile to not more than 
3 miles. The foreshore area varies from 10 
to 200 feet in width and from steep to gradual 
in slope. The offshore area is consistently 
gentle in slope and varies in width from 200 
to 2,000 feet. The sand is fine in texture, 
light -colored, and fairly clean. The dunes 
vary from small mounds to ko feet in height 
and are not entirely stabilized. Sea oats, 
croton and morning-glory are the three dom- 
inant types of vegetative cover to be found. 
Birdlife values are outstanding and histor- 
ical values important. 

The chief use of the island is for grazing, 
with some oil-drilling activity. There are 
developments and a county park at each 
causeway. 

Its great size and remote character, end- 
less sweep of broad beach, grass-topped 
dunes and windswept sand formations have 
great appeal. Its natural resources, his- 
torical and biological values should be 
preserved in public ownership. 



215 





V> V. 



'X 



Brazos Island, lear Mouth of Rio Grande 



216 



Brazos Island 



Texas 



Location : 
Accessibility: 
Description of Area 



Present Use: 



Analysis : 



Mouth of Rio Grande. 

By car over State Highvay k. 

The area is actually a peninsula 8 miles 
in length and averaging about three -quarters 
of a mile in width. The beach is wide, flat 
and clean along the northern portion. The 
sand is fine in texture and light in color. 
The water is clear and the shores moderately 
sloping. The dunes are 20 to 30 feet high 
and generally stable. The vegetative life 
consists primarily of sea oats, croton and 
morning-glory. Some portions of the southern 
3 miles have been eroded by river and littoral 
currents . 

A few scattered cottages and an oil well are 
the only developments. The island is popular 
with fishermen. 

Because of its excellent beach, interesting 
dunes, ease of accessibility, and relatively 
undeveloped status, this area should be con- 
sidered for public ownership. Its location 
at the mouth of the Rio Grande links the 
area with many outstanding events in the 
history of that great river. 



217 




Matagorda Island 



218 



Texas 



Bolivar Peninsula 



The peninsula is a western extension of the east coast of 
Texas running from High Island southwestwardly 28 miles to the 
Bolivar Roads waterway. It varies in width from l/2 mile to 
more than 3 l/2 miles. In general, the peninsula is a low, 
slightly rolling, sandy plain. The vegetative cover is almost 
entirely grass, with few trees and shrubs. There is a long row 
of frontal dunes not more than 10 to 15 feet high and generally 
stable. The beach is wide (up to 200 feet), gently sloping and 
fairly clean. The foreshore and offshore areas also are gently 
sloping and quite clean. Ranching and drilling for oil are the 
principal industries. There are communities along the peninsula 
and the resort -vacation type of development is expanding. State 
Highway 87 traverses the peninsula and most of the usable land 
off this road is being developed by private interests. There 
are better locations along the Texas coast for the development 
of public seashore recreation areas. 



Matagorda Island 



The island lies between Cavallo Pass and Cedar Bayou, south 
of Port O'Connor on the mainland, and is accessible only by boat 
and plane. It is about 35 miles long and from 1 i/2 to k l/2 
miles wide. The island possesses a wide, flat, clean beach and 
dunes that are quite high, extensive and generally stable. Vege- 
tation consists of grassy plains and salt marshes. The Matagorda 
Air Force Base occupies the northern ih miles of the island while 
the remainder is owned by Mr. Clint Murchison and is used generally 
for the grazing of cattle. Mr. Murchison maintains a residence on 
the island and has other ranch buildings. The island is not as 
desirable for public recreation purposes as some others along the 
Texas coast. 



219 






' f-'f 






Mustang Island 




220 



Texas 



St. Joseph Island 



This island presently connects with Matagorda Island at Cedar 
Bayou and runs 21 miles southwestwardly to Aransas Pass. It varies 
in width from less than a mile to nearly 5 miles. The island is 
very similar in character to Matagorda Island, with a wide, flat, 
clean beach, interesting dunes, and little vegetation. Mr. S. W. 
Richardson is purported to be the owner of the island and has built 
a large home in the southwestern portion. An airstrip and landing 
docks have been provided, and scattered throughout the island are 
ranch developments. Certain areas under consideration by the State 
have a higher value and better quality than St. Joseph Island, inso- 
far as seashore recreation factors are concerned. 



Mustang Island 



From its northward end at Aransas Pass, Mustang Island extends 
southwardly to Corpus Chris ti Pass where it joins with Padre Island. 
It is 16 l/2 miles long and has an average width of 2 miles. The 
beach is wide, flat, and quite clean of debris and shells. The slope 
of the foreshore and offshore areas is gentle and regular for a great 
distance. The dunes are imposing, quite regular in size, and stable. 
The principal and predominant plants on the Island are grasses. A 
few vines and low-growing shrubs are the only other native plants 
found growing on the island. A paved road extends the full length 
of the island and is accessible from the mainland at each end. Con- 
siderable development has taken place at both ends of the island and 
it is presumed that expansion will be toward the central undeveloped 
portion. 



221 



THE HISTORY OF THE SEACOAST 

A noted American historian, writing his famous treatise on 
the remarkable influence of the frontier on the life of the American 
Nation, suggested that an observer, standing at Cumberland Gap, could 
have witnessed civilization marching westward, in single file: first 
came the buffalo following the worn trail to the salt spring, then 
the Indian, followed at intervals by the fur trader and hunter, the 
pioneer farmer and the cattle raiser— and the frontier had passed by. 

In the same dramatic manner, the earlier pageant of the dis- 
covery, exploration and colonization of America could have been ob- 
served from vantage points along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. For 
while this shoreline today represents the eastern boundary of the 
United States, to Europe of Columbus' day it was the western rim of 
the Atlantic Ocean whose sandy shores, capes and rocky headlands rep- 
resented the first frontier to be encountered in the New World. 

The conquering of this first great American frontier was an 
arduous adventure. Europe was at a high stage of civilization; the 
New World was a barbarous wilderness. Only the strong could gain a 
foothold on the formidable shore and survive. After the discovery, 
nearly a century elapsed before permanent colonies were established 
on the Atlantic coast. This long interval was one of unceasing 
activity by powerful European nations seeking to exploit the resources 
of the new land. The era was one of vast consequence to the future 



A-l 



course of American history and one in vhich the Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts were witness to magnificently impressive episodes. 

Consider the blazing hot Gulf coast in the summer of 15^+2, 
when the wretched survivors of De Soto's once mighty expedition of 
armorclad conquistadores drifted Just offshore. After three years 
of agonizing hardship exploring the southern United States , a fleet 
of rude boats had been constructed without tools, on which the party 
floated down the Mississippi and headed for Mexico. 

Somewhere along the Texas coast, this desperate band landed 
and, heartened by favorable winds, "very devoutly formed a procession 
for the return of thanks", proceeded along the beach, and supplicated 
the Almighty for deliverance. Taking to their boats again, they 
reached Mexico safely* 

Or, consider the desolate beaches of North Carolina's Outer 
Banks in 1586, where half -starved members of the first English colony 
in America, established by Sir Walter Raleigh, patrolled the beach, 
hoping to signal a chance vessel. A ship appeared, and then to their 
unbelieving eyes more sails followed until a mighty fleet of 23 
vessels hove to — an armada commanded by the legendary Elizabethan sea 
dog Sir Francis Drake, whose vessels, well laden with booty, where home- 
ward bound after singeing the Spanish beard in the Caribbean. Gather- 
ing up the discouraged colonists, Drake set sail for England. 

Unfortunately for the historian and archeologist, little 
evidence remains in the shifting beach sands of most such scenes. 



A -2 



The temporary and continually changing character of the shoreline 
may be partially responsible for the inability of scholars thu6 
far to solve one of history's most baffling and intriguing puzzles. 
What is the location of Vinland — reached by Leif Eric son and his 
successors during the Norse voyages of exploration about the year 
1,000 A.D.? Despite claims for numerous relics and rune stones, posi- 
tive identification has not yet been possible. Most historians now 
accept the Icelandic sagas which describe the voyages to Vinland, but 
geographical references are so vague that serious claims have been 
made for locations from Labrador to Florida. Somewhere along the 
coast, the key may yet be uncovered. 

But whether the Norsemen (who probably reached the coast of 
North America), or Columbus (who did not), are given credit for the 
"discovery" of America, there were an estimated 125,000 Indians living 
along the Atlantic seaboard in 1500, whose ancestors had "discovered" 
the land in the dim past. One can imagine that previous to Columbus, 
as the European mariner stood upon a pier, gazing westward across the 
uncharted sea, puzzling over the rumors of islands beyond, the silent 
savage was seated upon a dune, staring impassively eastward, wonder- 
ing too what lay beyond the horizon. Upon the beaches of the Atlantic 
and Gulf coasts the old and the new civilizations were to meet. 

The Indians thousands of years ago were lovers of the sea- 
shore, which they visited frequently chiefly because it was an excel- 
lent source of many varieties of seafood. Remains of aboriginal shore 



A-3 



dinners— which featured oysters on the half shell— are frequently- 
encountered today, scattered along the coastline from Maine to 
Mexico. These shell middens, some many acres in size, are refuse 
heaps which also contain invaluable artifacts, discarded tools and 
weapons and broken pottery, which aid the archeologist in recreating 
the prehistoric life of the Indian. 

Some of the earliest and most sustained associations be- 
tween Indians and Europeans along the coast accompanied the establish- 
ment of the fishing Industry. Immediately after 1U92, and some say 
before, English, French and Portugese fishing vessels appeared off 
the Newfoundland and New England coasts. A half century before the 
Mayflower sailed there were 350 fishing vessels crossing the Atlantic 
each year and carrying back apparently inexhaustible supplies of fish 
to feed Catholic Europe. On the sandy beaches and offshore islands 
of New England fishermen landed to trade with the natives for furs, 
to obtain fresh water, and to dry and salt their catch, and an Indian 
dumfounded the Plymouth settlers by greeting them in English, which 
he had learned from the fishermen. 

Of all the varied company of mariners who explored the 
coast and beaches of the New World, probably none gave it more care- 
ful scrutiny than that venturesome group of navigators who, for more 
than 300 years, sought the elusive Northwest Passage. Begun by 
Columbus, the quest for a water route through North America was pressed 
on despite cruel disappointments. Not until 1800 did the search be- 
come purely one for geographical knowledge. 



A-U 



Some of the great names of American history were pioneers 
in the age of exploration— Drake and Hawkins, Champlain and Ponce de 
_«on, Hudson and the Cabots. Seeking fishing grounds and colony 
sites, gold and the Northwest Passage to the fabulous wealth of the 
spice islands, they sailed tiny vessels along the vast coastline and 
laid claim to new lands for their sovereigns. 

After the explorers, in the procession of civilization coming 
out of European ports, were the colonists. Long before the success at 
Jamestown, settlements, recorded and unrecorded, were attempted at 
many places along the Atlantic coast — the French in South Carolina and 
Florida, the English in Maine and North Carolina, the Spanish in 
Florida and Georgia, among others. Reaching the forbidding headlands 
of New England or the more hospitable southern strands was an arduous 
voyage in tiny ships, but the real problem was to stay and prosper. 
Half the Pilgrims perished the first winter, not an unusual toll. 

Men, women and children, farmers, artisans, gentry, these 
first emigrants came to find or escape many things, as millions have 
done since that time. The first settlements were on the coast, clus- 
tering around a sheltered harbor, for the sea was the vital lifeline. 
The early colonists came to the beach for food, as had the Indians, 
and perhaps for pleasure. But colonies were inevitably dependent 
upon agriculture and the tide of civilization soon swept inland, 
leaving behind only those who chose to make their living from the sea. 

A later breed of pioneers, whose knavery somehow gained for 



A-5 



them a surprisingly high place among American folk heroes, were the 
pirates. In truth, legions of pirates — Blackboard, Dixie Bull, Cap- 
tain Kidd and Jean Laff itte among them — operating from hideaways along 
the coast plundered thousands of ships. The U. S. Navy was created 
in part to protect American vessels from their attacks. But the 
tales of pirate gold hidden among the sand dunes (Parchment maps are 
occasionally available direct from the hand of a dying Spaniard.) are 
recorded more frequently by Chamber of Commerce guide books than by 
historical publications . 

After the country was settled and the Nation created, much 
of the coastline's history dealt with keeping unwanted visitors away. 
Great brick forts were constructed along the South Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts to protect the country from enemy attack by sea. Most of these 
forts saw their only action during the Civil War, when many were bom- 
barded and captured. Although numerous brick and concrete fortifica- 
tions have since been built to protect important harbors and ports 
along the coast, all are now outdated by new weapons and most are 
crumbling relics, covered by drifting sand, of an epoch which has 
passed. Guided missile bases and radar towers are the modern bastions 
of the coastline. 

Undoubtedly the most enduring phase of seashore history has 
been its role in maritime operations. Dangerous promontories and out- 
lying shoals are strewn with the wreckage of countless ships. The 
toll of sailing vessels, helpless before the pounding of Atlantic 



A-6 



gales, was almost unbelievable. During a six-year period one ship 
a week went aground on the North Carolina coast with as many as 14 
foundering in one day. The Cape Hatteras area alone accounted for 
several hundred victims. 

Shipwrecks long ago provided a living for the colorful 
"mooncussers" who salvaged wreckage and cargo from doomed vessels. 
The true beach dwellers and beachcombers of today are the men who 
man the Coast Guard stations and lighthouses on isolated beaches and 
remote islands. Introduction of steam, and of radio and radar, has 
almost eliminated marine disasters and few of the present coast 
guardsmen have brought a surfboat loaded with survivors through the 
raging breakers or made fast a breeches buoy to a ship stranded on 
the offshore bar. 

But up and down the coast, storms continue to uncover 
broken sections of vessels long burled in the sand. These gaunt 
skeletons mutely symbolize the history of the coast, for on such ships 
men came from the Old World to the New and explored a great continent 
and made it their home. The men and their ships, who fulfilled a 
great destiny, are gone. And yet, the memory-provoking sight of such 
wreckage on a lonely beach, with the surf rolling endlessly upon the 
sand, helps recapture for the musing spectator the half -forgotten 
procession of figures and episodes of history which the coastline has 
witnessed. 



A-7 



THE NATIVE LIFE 
OF 
THE SEASHORE 

Up to the end of the fifteenty century, A. D., the plant 
and animal life along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts vas essentially 
unmodified by any activities of man. The Indians used whatever they 
needed for food and the other necessities of their way of living but 
they did not use enough of any kind of either plant or animal to 
change materially the appearance or composition of any of the plant - 
animal, or biotic, communities. The more advanced Indians carried 
on certain agricultural practices on limited areas inland from the 
coast but practically everywhere along the coast all of the plants 
and all of the animals, as well as the Indians, were native to the 
communities in which they lived. There were no exotics. 

What were the biotic communities along the coast like at 
that time? The most abundant plants in the waters adjacent to the 
seashore were brown and red algae, commonly called seaweeds* The 
largest of the seaweeds are brown algae, but the most intricately 
branched and the most beautiful are red algae. Along the entire coast 
there are probably more than 50 different kinds of brown algae and 
more than 200 different kinds of red algae that are large enough to be 
called seaweeds. Most of these algae grow attached to rocks or to other 



A-9 



objects, sometimes to other algae. Therefore, they are not seen 
along sandy beaches except when they are broken loose and cast up 
on the beach by waves, but they are abundant along rocky coasts. 

Aside from the algae, one of the most abundant plants from 
North Carolina northward was eelgrass, a member of the pondweed 
family. This was also one of the most important of the marine plants 
because it served as food and shelter for numerous animals including 
many migratory waterfowl. 

The waters were also teeming with animal life. There were 
several kinds of whales, dolphins and porpoises that were common 
along the coast and there were harbor seals from North Carolina 
northward. There were probably more than 200 different kinds of 
fishes and at least forty of them were known to be edible. Most of 
these fishes had a rather wide range of distribution but few of them 
were found al^ the way from Canada to Mexico. The herring, for ex- 
ample, is a northern species which is seldom seen south of Delaware 
Bay while Spanish mackerel and snook are southern species which are 
seldom seen north of Cape Cod. There were also lobsters from Chesa- 
peake Bay north, blue crabs from Long Island south, and myriads of 
shellfishes everywhere. 

As one left the open water and proceeded toward the land 
he might, in the fifteenth century as now, have encountered one of 
the two types of biotic communities that occur where the salt water 



A -10 



is very shallow at low tide but deeper at high tide. These are the 
saltmarsh community and the mangrove swamp community. The mangrove 
swamp community is limited to the coasts of the southern peninsula 
of Florida but the saltmarsh community occurs at various places from 
Maine to Texas. Saltmarshes are most extensive from western Florida 
to Texas and from New Jersey to Georgia. Louisiana has more than any 
other State. Along the entire coast from Maine to Texas there are be- 
tween 5 l/2 and 6 million acres of saltmarsh and more than half of this 
is in Louisiana. The dominant plants in the saltmarsh community are 
cordgrass and black rush together with saltgrass, bulrush, and several 
showy flowering plants such as saltmarsh aster and seaside goldenrod. 
The community is inhabited by such birds as redwing blackbird, herons, 
marsh wren, and various shorebirds, and is visited regularly, in 
season, by large numbers of migratory waterfowl. It is inhabited also 
by mussels, snails and fiddler crabs and is visited by several fishes. 
Meadow mice and muskrats sometimes inhabit the saltmarsh the year 
round and occasional visitors include such mammals as otter, mink, 
raccoon and opossum. 

Mangrove swamps occur along the coasts of Florida southward 
from St. Augustine on the Atlantic coast and from Cedar Keys on the 
Gulf coast. They occur where the water is a few inches to two feet 
deep at average high tide. They increase in area southward and reach 
their greatest development on the southwest coast in the Ten Thousand 
Islands region. The most characteristic plants in them are the red 



A-ll 



mangrove -which is recognized by its numerous prop-roots extending 
downward from the lower branches like stilts; the black mangrove 
which produces an abundance of odd, pencil -like roots sticking up- 
right out of the mud; and the white mangrove which produces fewer and 
smaller upright roots than the black mangrove and is more readily 
recognized by its fleshy, elliptical leaves and small ribbed fruits. 

In the fifteenth century one would have found the beaches 
looking about as they do now so far as native life is concerned. 
There is no biotic community on the beach proper and the only living 
things seen, aside from plants or animals that may have been washed 
up by waves, are likely to be a few scampering sand crabs and several 
kinds of shore birds. Back of the beach, however, there is a very 
characteristic biotic community, called the sand-dune community. It 
sometimes occupies only the first row of dunes but often it covers 
several rows. 

From North Carolina southward and also on the Gulf coast 
the sea oat is the dominant plant and it is often accompanied by 
beach croton and beach morning-glory, while from Virginia northward 
the sea oat is replaced by beachgrass and often large areas of low 
dunes are blanketed by beach heath. There are, of course, various 
other plants that occur in this community but those mentioned are the 
ones that are most commonly seen. Animal life is not abundant in this 
community. It is limited largely to such species as sand crabs, dune 
fiddler crabs, saltmarsh cicadas, and beach tiger bettles, but there 



A-12 



are usually also a few small rodents and a few nesting birds. 

The nearness to the ocean that plants are able to grow de- 
pends upon the amount of salt spray that they can endure. Some can 
endure much more than others. Those that can endure the greatest 
amount of salt spray are found growing in the sand dune biotic com- 
munity. Those that cannot endure so much must stay a little farther 
away from the ocean. 

In most places along the coast a visitor in the fifteenth 
century would have found three distinct zones of vegetation, that is, 
three distinct biotic communities. There were the sand-dune community, 
the shrub community, and the forest community. The shrub community 
formed a zone between the other two and might be entirely on old dunes. 
From Virginia northward it was composed largely of bayberry with the 
addition of beach plum and bear oak from Delaware northward. From 
North Carolina southward to northern Florida and along the northern 
coast of the Gulf of Mexico it was composed largely of wax myrtle, 
yaupon, and red cedar. And on both the eastern and western coasts 
of peninsular Florida it was composed largely of sea-grape, saw 
palmetto, and yucca. 

The plants of the shrub community, and sometimes those of 
the forest community, looked as though they had been artif ically 
trimmed to produce a smooth, upward slant away from the ocean. This 
was due to the repeated killing of the terminal buds on the side 



A-13 



toward the ocean by the salt spray and the continued growth of the 
buds on the more protected, landward sides of the plants. 

In the fifteenth century there were well -developed forests 
nearly everywhere along the coast. Toward the north, the coastal 
forests did not differ very much from those farther inland. In Maine 
the trees were largely evergreen— spruce, fir, white pine and hemlock. 
Farther south the evergreen trees were replaced by several kinds of 
oaks and a few other trees. On Cape Cod and the neighboring islands, 
for example, the forest consisted largely of oak and beech. 

From North Carolina southward to northern Florida and from 
western Florida to Texas the typical coastal forest was dominated by 
live oak and accompanied by such trees as red bay, hop-hornbeam, holly, 
red mulberry, laurel oak and, in many places, cabbage palmetto and 
southern magnolia. Along the eastern and western coasts of Florida 
the near -coastal forest varied from place to place and did not differ 
greatly from forests farther inland. 

In both the shrub and the forest communities there was an 
abundance of animal life. Deer, Jroxes, raccoons, squirrels, and 
rabbits were nearly everywhere. There were also many kinds of nesting 
birds and such animals as frogs, toads, snakes, and myriads of insects. 

In all of the biotic or plant-animal communities there were 

hundreds of kinds of living things in addition to the few that hava 

i 

been mentioned. There were many kinds of flowering plants, and there 



A-11+ 



were molds, mushrooms, spiders, earthworms, and bacteria. Each kind of 
organism had its part to play in the drama of life that was carried on 
in each community. Birds fed upon insects; insects helped pollinate 
flowers; plants furnished food for mammals and birds; bacteria brought 
about the decay of the dead bodies of plants and animals. 

The total result of the numerous activities of all the organ- 
isms in the community resulted in a harmonious, cooperative balance 
among the plants and animals that is often spoken of as the balance of 
nature. It is by the study of such harmonious, well-balanced, natural 
communities that the biologists learn better ways to grow cultivated 
plants and domestic animals, and better ways for man to live a happy, 
healthy and useful life. 

What has happened to these nearly perfect biotic communities 
since the fifteenth century? When Europeans arrived they immediately 
began to exploit the natural resources. It was the natural thing for 
them to do and no one should blame them for doing it. The forests 
and the animal life seemed inexhaustible and there was no apparent 
reason why they should not be used. Forest trees were cut down to 
obtain lumber for building houses and boats. Wild animals were shot 
to obtain meat. Whales were killed to obtain blubber. 

At first very little impression was made on the total amount 
of the natural resources. But as the numbers of men increased, the 
time eventually came when certain species of plants and animals were 



A-15 



used up faster than they were being produced. In the waters adjacent 
to the coast, the greatest change brought about by man has been a 
very marked decrease in the numbers of whales and in a very few 
species of fish such as shad and Atlantic salmon. 

An important change that was not due to man's activities 
occurred in 1931 and 1932 when nearly all the eelgrass disappeared 
from our coastal waters. This was due, apparently, to a rather mys- 
terious plant disease. It brought about a great decrease in the 
numbers of brant and other waterfowls which depended upon eelgrass for 
food. Eelgrass is slowly returning at some places along the coast and 
it may be that at some future time it will be as abundant as it former- 
ly was. 

There was not much that man wanted in either the sand dune 
community or in the shrub community and these communities were not 
much disturbed except when man built houses or other buildings in 
places that were occupied by these biotic communities. In such cases, 
however, the native life invariably is completely destroyed and so 
many places along our coast have been developed for human use that 
the areas where the sand dune and shrub communities are relatively 
undisturbed are exceedingly limited. 

The original forests have been cut down almost everywhere 
along the coast. In many places there is no forest left at all. In 
other places the primitive forest has been replaced by a different 
type of forest. On Cape Cod, for example, the original oak -beech 



A -16 



forest has been replaced by a pitch pine forest and in various 
places farther south the original live oak forest has been replaced 
by loblolly and longleaf pine. 

In only a few limited areas are there remnants of forests 
which, although more or less modified, can still be recognized as 
parts of the primitive, native forests. Examples of these can be 
found on parts of Roque Island, Maine, in the Sunken Forest on Fire 
Island, New York, in the Bird Refuge at Stone Harbor, New Jersey, on 
Smith Island, North Carolina, and Cumberland Island, Georgia, and on 
some of the Florida keys. 

The animal life of the shrub and forest communities has 
suffered along with the plant life. In some cases this has resulted 
from too many animals being killed by man. More often, however, it 
has resulted from the destruction of the plant life. Animals cannot 
live without plants. Therefore, when a forest or a shrub community 
is destroyed the animals that normally inhabit those communities have 
no place to live and they must either move to another locality or die. 

In addition to the destruction of native plants and animals 
by man another factor that has contaminated many of the native com- 
munities has been the introduction of exotic plants and animals. Some 
of these introductions have been intentional while others have been 
entirely unintentional. Many of the exotic species have become natu- 
ralized and are mingled with the native species to such an extent 
that the biotic communities can no longer be said to be in a wholly 
natural condition. 



A-17 



One of the most unfortunate introductions was that of the 
Japanese honeysuckle which has been extensively planted and encour- 
aged by people who do not realize the value of uncontaminated native 
vegetation. This exotic honeysuckle is now common in forest borders 
all the way from Massachusetts to Texas. It is very difficult to 
eradicate and, since it rapidly overwhelms and strangles many kinds 
of native plants, it seriously changes the character of the forest 
border . 

Many different kinds of weeds have been introduced uninten- 
tionally and some exotic animals have gained entrance in the same 
manner. The most troublesome exotic animals along the coast, however, 
have been domestic animals such as goats and hogs which have "gone 
wild". They often do a great deal of damage to the native vegetation. 

The few remaining examples of natural, or even semi natural, 
biotic communities along the seacoast should be zealously preserved 
and protected from further modification. Biologists should have an 
opportunity to study these particular types of biotic communities 
that occur nowhere except along the seashore, for no one is able to 
say that^ at some time in the future, such studies might not result in 
discoveries of great benefit to the human race. 

Entirely aside from the opportunities for scientific research, 
it is exceedingly important to the future of education to have examples 
of all of the different types of biotic communities available for na- 
ture study classes, conservation groups, and anyone else who may wish 



A -18 



to study, photograph, or otherwise enjoy the activities of native 
plants and animals in their natural homes. 

The esthetic values of the native biotic communities also 
should not be overlooked. Much of the beauty of the coastal areas is 
due to the plants that grow upon them and since the plants that grow 
naturally in the native biotic communities are better adapted than 
any others for the rather difficult growing conditions in our seaside 
habitats, the plant life is well worthy of protection and preservation 
for its esthetic values alone. 

What can be done at this late hour to save some of our native 
plant and animal life along the seacoast? The most important thing to 
remember in this connection is that nature is a very efficient conser- 
vationist. If a biotic community can be protected from human vandal- 
ism and from domestic animals, and if no plants or animals are taken 
out or put into it, nature will take good care of it, as a general 
rule. If it is already in a natural condition, nature will keep it 
that way if given a chance. If it is only seminatural it still is un- 
necessary to do anything except protect it and leave it alone. Nature 
will gradually bring it back to a natural condition. It may take a 
long time to do it, the length of time depending upon how much it had 
been disturbed, but it will continually become more valuable as the 
years go by. 

However, in order that nature may take care of a biotic 
community, it is necessary that permanent protection of the area be 



A-19 



guaranteed. Usually a private owner cannot give such a guarantee. 
It is important, therefore, that the best of our remaining natural 
or seminatural biotic communities be owned by the State, the Federal 
Government, or some other agency that can guarantee permanent pro- 
tection. As soon as an area containing natural or seminatural biotic 
communities is obtained by such an agency, a trained biologist should 
be asked to advise which parts are best suited for permanent protection. 
Steps should then be taken to guarantee that the selected parts will be 
protected for all time. The remaining parts of the area can then be 
used for recreation or any other worthy purpose. 



A-20 



EXISTING FEDERAL AND STATE SEASHORE RECREATION AREAS 

OF THE 
ATLANTIC AND GULF COASTS 



Maine 



Area 

Acadia National Park 
Reid State Park 



Length of Shoreline 

12 miles 
1.5 miles 



New Hampshire 



Hampton Beach State Park 
Rye Harbor State Park 
Wallis Sands State Park 



1000 feet 
100 feet 
300 feet 



Massachusetts 



Marthas Vineyard State 
Reservation 

Monomoy Island (Fish and 
Wildlife Service) 

Plum Island (Fish and 
Wildlife Service) 

Provincelands State 
Reservation 

Salisbury State Beach 
Reservation 



2 miles 

10 miles 

6 miles 

9 miles 

U miles 



A-21 



Area 



Length of Shoreline 



Rhode Island 



Connecticut 



Block Island State Beach 
Sand Hill Cove State Beach 
Scarborough State Beach 

Harkness Estate State Park 
Hammonasset Beach State Park 
Rocky Neck State Park 
Sherwood Island State Park 



1 


mile 


2200 


feet 


2200 


feet 



.25 mile 
2 miles 

• 5 
1 mile 



New York 



Captree State Park 
Fire Island State Park 
Gilgo State Park 
Hitner Hills State Park 
Jones Beach State Park 
Montauk Point State Park 



2 miles 

5 miles 
h miles 
1.5 miles 

6 miles 
•5 mile 



New Jersey 



Island Beach State Park 



miles 



Delaware 



A number of unconnected areas 



12 



miles 



A -22 



Area 



Length of Shoreline 



Maryland 



None 



Virginia 



Assateague Island (Fish 
and Wildlife Service) 

Seashore State Park 



15 miles 
1 mile 



North Carolina 



Cape Hatteras National 

Seashore Recreation Area 
(including Pea Island 
National Wildlife Refuge) 

Fort Macon State Park 



70 miles 
1 mile 



South Carolina 



Edisto Beach State Park 
Hunting Island State Park 
Myrtle Beach State Park 



3 miles 
k.3 miles 
1 mile 



Georgia 



Jekyll Island State Park 



10 miles 



Florida 



Anastasia Island State Park 
De Soto Beach State Park 
Everglades National Park 



8 miles 
1 mile 
U6 miles 



A-23 



Area Length of Shoreline 

Florida 

Fort Clinch State Park 1 mile 

Hugh Taylor Birch State Park -5 mile 

Little Talbot Island State Park 5 miles 
St. Andrews State Park 1 mile 



Alabama 



Gulf State Park and Fort Morgan 

State Park 5 miles 



Mississippi 

None 

Louisiana 

None 

Texas 

None 



To summarize, approximately 265 miles of seashore (excluding 
bays, coves and harbors) are in Federal and State ownership. There 
are 2 national parks, 1 national seashore recreation area, k national 
wildlife refuges (counting only those refuges which contain ocean 
beaches), and 36 State parks — a total of ^3 areas in 1^ States. 

The 5k areas selected, out of the 126 studied, have a com- 
bined total of approximately 6U0 miles of shoreline. If placed in 
public ownership, they would increase the amount of publicly owned 
seashore to nearly 25$ of the Atlantic and Gulf coastline. 



A-2^ 



National Wildlife Refuges 
Atlantic and Gulf Coasts 



1. Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge 

2. Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge 

3. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge 
k. Brigantine National Wildlife Refuge 

5. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge 

6. Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge 

7. Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge 

8. Blackbeard Island National Wildlife Refuge 
9- Wolf Island National Wildlife Refuge 

10. Anclote National Wildlife Refuge 

11. Cedar Keys National Wildlife Refuge 

12. Great White Heron National Wildlife Refuge 

13. St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge 
Ik. Sanibel National Wildlife Refuge 

15. Key West National Wildlife Refuge 

16. Petit Bois National Wildlife Refuge 
IT. Breton National Wildlife Refuge 

18. Delta National Wildlife Refuge 



Maryland - Virginia 

Massachusetts 

Massachusetts 

New Jersey 

Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Georgia 

Florida 

Florida 

Florida 

Florida 

Florida 

Florida 

Alabama - Mississippi 

Louisiana 

Louisiana 



A-25 



INT.-DUP. SEC. WASH., D.C. 98 62 5 



LHSI1V Of ^t-OHGlAllHHAfm b 



UNIVt MM I T 'M '-.'„. ■, ■ ii mlilll I III III 

llllllllllllll 4 

?l.nfl D4633 3747 



3 2106 D4633